About Prof. Muse Tegegne

Prof. Muse Tegegne has lectured sociology Change & Liberation in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Americas. He has obtained Doctorat es Science from the University of Geneva. A PhD in Developmental Studies & ND in Natural Therapies. He wrote on the problematic of the Horn of Africa extensively. And Lecture at Mobile University..
Website: http://ethiopianism.net
Prof. Muse has written 348 articles so far, you can find them below.

Eritrea governed by the worst dictator scored the Top most censored country, the worst of the worst

In its Ten Most Censored Countries, the CPJ  puts Eritrea the worst of the worst , North Korea, Syria, and Iran .

Eritrea, a tiny African land of just over five million wedged between Ethiopia, Sudan and the Red Sea is the number one culprit.

Though few people can find the place, lest have heard of it, Eritrea had fought a long and bloody war against Ethiopia before breaking free.

It’s capital Asmara used to be a pleasant place with Italianate architecture and optimism. Today Eritrea is a forgotten land; there is no freedom of expression. Only state-sanctioned media is permitted and foreign journalists are banned.

In such places newspapers often resemble poorly printed pennysaver-type publications with ubiquitous pictures of the local dictator greeting farmers, schoolchildren or soldiers.

 

Let us read the CPJ’s rapport as that follows:-

10 Most Censored Countries

CPJ’s new analysis identifies Eritrea, North Korea, Syria, Iran as worst

Published May 2, 2012
NEW YORK
Shutting out international media and imposing dictatorial controls on domestic coverage, the Horn of Africa nation of Eritrea has emerged as the world’s most censored country, the Committee to Protect Journalists has found in its newly updated analysis of press restrictions around the globe. Following closely on CPJ’s 10 Most Censored Countries list are North Korea, Syria, and Iran—three nations where vast restrictions on information have enormous implications for geopolitical and nuclear stability.

No foreign reporters are granted access to Eritrea, and all domestic media are controlled by the government. Ministry of Information officials direct every detail of coverage: “Every time [a journalist] had to write a story, they arrange for interview subjects and tell you specific angles you have to write on,” an exiled Eritrean journalist told CPJ, speaking on condition of anonymity for fear of reprisal. “We usually wrote lots about the president so that he’s always in the limelight.” So when President Isaias Afewerki dropped out of public view for a time last month, his citizens and the international community were left with only rumors about his well-being.

North Korea, which topped CPJ’s previous list of most censored countries, published in 2006, remains an extraordinarily secretive place with nearly all domestic news content supplied by the official Korean Central News Agency. As North Korea moved down a notch, to second on this year’s list, some tiny cracks have emerged: The Associated Press this year opened a bureau in the capital, Pyongyang, and a Japanese editor is working with a handful of volunteers to document daily life in North Korea and smuggle out the recordings. But issues with vast worldwide implications—including North Korea’s long-standing bid to build nuclear weapons and its new political power structure—remain hidden beneath severe censorship.

Censorship has intensified significantly In Syria and Iran in response to political unrest. Syria moved from ninth on CPJ’s 2006 list to third in this analysis; Iran, unranked in 2006, shot up to number four on CPJ’s new list. By barring international media from entering and reporting freely and by attacking its own citizen journalists, Syria has sought to impose a news media blackout on a year-long military crackdown that has roiled the international community. Iran has mixed high-technology techniques such as Web blocking with brute-force tactics such as mass imprisonment of journalists to control the flow of information and obfuscate details of its own nuclear program.

A North Korean tank moves past local journalists during an April military parade in Pyongyang. (AP/Ng Han Guan)

A North Korean tank moves past local journalists during an April military parade in Pyongyang. (AP/Ng Han Guan)

“The censorship of the media existed far before the revolution, but it has increased since because [President Bashar] al-Assad wants to convey a particular picture to the outside world that the regime is fighting off terrorists who are causing the unrest,” Eiad Shurbaji, a Syrian journalist who fled the country in January for fear of his life, told CPJ.” Another tenet of Syria’s propaganda was that minorities would be at risk without the regime, he said. “Media censorship played a huge role in keeping Assad in power.”

CPJ’s 10 Most Censored Countries, released to mark World Press Freedom Day, May 3, also includes, in order: Equatorial Guinea, where all media is controlled, directly or indirectly, by President Teodoro Obiang; Uzbekistan, where there is no independent press and journalists contributing to foreign outlets are subject to harassment and prosecution; Burma, where a series of reforms have not extended to rigid censorship laws; Saudi Arabia, which, like other Middle Eastern countries, has tightened restrictions in response to political unrest; Cuba, where the Communist Party controls all domestic media; and Belarus, where the most recent of many crackdowns by Aleksandr Lukashenko has sent the remnants of independent media underground.

In making its selections, CPJ closely considered six other countries that are heavily censored: Azerbaijan, Ethiopia, China, Sudan, Turkmenistan, and Vietnam. By exporting censorship techniques, China plays a particularly harmful role worldwide.

Among the list of 10 most censored, Saudi Arabia is a new entry. Cuba dropped from seventh in 2006 to ninth this year as authorities recently released more than 20 imprisoned journalists and a vibrant (though persecuted) community of independent bloggers has emerged. Burma has moved from second on CPJ’s previous list to seventh on this analysis because it, too, released a number of imprisoned journalists and informally loosened, at least temporarily, restrictions on reporting for locals and foreigners alike.

Burma’s military-backed government allowed foreign journalists into the country to cover a visit by U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in December and a landmark by-election in April. “But between those two events, with limited exceptions, the government ignored visa requests from major international news organizations, making it impossible for them to visit the country unless they did so undercover as tourists. Also, visas to cover the April 1 election were valid for five days only, after which all officially approved foreign reporters had to leave en masse,” one Southeast Asia-based reporter for an international news outlet told CPJ. He spoke on condition of anonymity, in order not to jeopardize his ability to report from the country. As for local reporters in Burma, he said, “they are able to report on small domestic protests or rallies and photograph policemen without getting in trouble. They are also often posting articles directly to Facebook and other websites without clearing them with censors,” but they remain wary of the risks entailed in critical journalism.

The 10 most restricted countries employ a wide range of censorship techniques, from the sophisticated blocking of websites and satellite broadcasts by Iran to the oppressive regulatory systems of Saudi Arabia and Belarus; from the dominance of state media in North Korea and Cuba to the crude tactics of imprisonment and violence in Eritrea, Uzbekistan, and Syria.

A photographer is obstructed as people flee a Syrian Army attack in Idlib in March. (AP/Rodrigo Abd)

A photographer is obstructed as people flee a Syrian Army attack in Idlib in March. (AP/Rodrigo Abd)

One trait they have in common is some form of authoritarian rule. Their leaders are in power by dint of monarchy, family dynasty, coup d’état, rigged election, or some combination thereof. In Eritrea, President Afewerki was elected by the National Assembly in 1993, but has since managed to hold off elections and the implementation of a constitution, largely by imprisoning critics and obliterating the private press.

Indeed, disputed legitimacy of leadership is at the heart of censorship and media crackdowns in many places. Syria has long been a tightly controlled country, but last year, when regular demonstrations began to call for the ouster of Assad, foreign correspondents were restricted and locals who reported on the uprisings were arrested; the dangerous task of reporting on Assad’s brutal military response was left to courageous citizen journalists and foreign reporters who sneaked into the country. Iran became vastly more repressive after the disputed 2009 election returned President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to power. Tehran—which once withheld subsidies and issued short prison sentences to keep critical journalists quiet—now closes news outlets, expels foreign media, imprisons dozens on lengthy terms, and seizes property. Saudi authorities—growing wary as regional uprisings ousted leaders in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya—added further restrictions in 2011 to the country’s media law, imposed new regulations on Web publications, and banned at least three columnists who had written about the region’s political unrest.

Lagging economic development is another notable trend among heavily censored nations. Of the 10 most censored countries, all but two have per capita income around half, or well below half, of global per capita income, according to World Bank figures for 2010, the most recent available. The two exceptions are Saudi Arabia and Equatorial Guinea, where oil revenues lead to much higher per capita income than the global level. But both of those countries are beset by vast economic inequities between leaders and citizens.

To determine this list, CPJ staff judged all countries according to 15 benchmarks. They included blocking of websites; restrictions on electronic recording and dissemination; the absence of privately owned or independent media; restrictions on journalist movements; license requirements to conduct journalism; security service monitoring of journalists; jamming of foreign broadcasts; blocking of foreign correspondents. All of the countries on the list met at least 10 benchmarks.

For this list, CPJ considered only countries where restrictions are imposed directly by the state. In Somalia and vast sections of Mexico, journalists practice extensive self-censorship in the face of extralegal violence.


1. Eritrea

President Isaias Afewerki has held off elections and the implementation of a constitution since 1993. (AFP/Marco Longari)

President Isaias Afewerki has held off elections and the implementation of a constitution since 1993. (AFP/Marco Longari)

Leadership: President Isaias Afewerki, in power since 1993

How Censorship Works: Only state news media are allowed to operate in Eritrea, and they do so under the complete direction of Information Minister Ali Abdu. Journalists are conscripted into their work and enjoy no editorial freedom; they are handed instructionson how to cover events. Journalists suspected of sending information outside the country are thrown into prison without charge or trial and held for extended periods of time without access to family or a lawyer. The government expelled the last accredited foreign correspondent in 2007. All Internet service providers are required to connect to the World Wide Web through government-operated EriTel. While Eritrea’s journalists in exile run many websites, Internet access is affordable for only a handful of citizens, and mobile Internet isn’t available.

Lowlight: In 2011, Eritrea planned to introduce mobile Internet capability, which is popular throughout the developing world, where cellular towers are often built before Internet or land lines. But the government, fearful of the effect of the Arab Spring uprisings, abandoned the plan.

Click here for more on Eritrea.


2. North Korea

Leadership: Kim Jong Un, who took over when his father Kim Jong Il died in December 2011. His grandfather, Kim Il Sung, ruled North Korea from 1948 until his death in 1994.

How Censorship Works: Nearly all the content of North Korea’s 12 main newspapers, 20 periodicals, and broadcasters comes from the official Korean Central News Agency and focuses on the political leadership’s statements and supposed activities. Ruling elites have access to the World Wide Web, but the public is limited to a heavily monitored and censored network with no connections to the outside world. While The Associated Press opened a Pyongyang bureau in January 2012 staffed with North Koreans, the AP wasn’t granted its own Internet connection and the correspondents have no secure line of communication. A Japan-based media support group, Asiapress, has been giving North Korean volunteers journalism training and video cameras to record daily life in the North. Downloaded onto DVDs or memory sticks, the images are smuggled across the porous border with China and then sent to Japan for broader distribution. Only small numbers of foreign journalists are generally allowed limited access to the country each year, and they must be accompanied everywhere by minders.

Lowlight: KCNA’s official version of Kim Jong Il’s death said he died on December 19, 2011, of heart failure while traveling by train because of a “great mental and physical strain” during a “high-intensity field inspection.” Subsequent analysis of official pronouncements indicates that, wherever he was, Kim most likely died on December 17, and the news was delayed to allow officials to sort out problems of succession.

Click here for more on North Korea.


3. Syria

Leadership: President Bashar al-Assad, who took over upon his father’s death in 2000

How Censorship Works: Since demonstrators began calling for Assad’s ouster in March 2011, the regime has imposed a blackout on independent news coverage, barring foreign reporters from entering and reporting freely, and detaining and attacking local journalists who try to cover protests. Numerous journalists have gone missing or been detained without charge, and many said they were tortured in custody. International media have relied heavily on footage shot by citizen journalists in very dangerous conditions. At least nine journalists have been killed on duty since November 2011, six in circumstances in which government culpability is suspected. In its campaign to silence media coverage, the government disabled mobile phones, landlines, electricity, and the Internet. Authorities have routinely extracted passwords of social media sites from journalists through beatings and torture. The pro-government online group the Syrian Electronic Army has frequently hacked websites to post pro-regime material, and the government has been implicated in malware attacks targeted at those reporting on the crisis.

LowlightFerzat Jarban was the first journalist killed for his work in Syria since CPJ began documenting deaths two decades ago. A local videographer documenting protests and the government’s violent crackdown in his hometown of Al-Qusayr in Homs, his footage showed shocking images of dead women and children. Jarban was last seen being arrested before his body turned up bearing signs of mutilation, with one eye gouged out.

Click here for more on Syria.


4. Iran

President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has a wave and a smile for the media, even as his government imprisons journalists under horrific conditions. (AP/Vahid Salemi)

President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has a wave and a smile for the media, even as his government imprisons journalists under horrific conditions. (AP/Vahid Salemi)

Leadership: Ayatollah Ali Khamenei has been supreme leader since 1989. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad first won the presidency in 2005.

How Censorship Works: The government uses mass imprisonment of journalists as a means of silencing dissent and quashing critical news coverage. Since 2009, a once-robust reformist media has been battered by a government onslaught that has included the banning of publications and the mass arrests and imprisonments of journalists on antistate charges. Imprisoned journalists are subject to horrible conditions including solitary confinement, physical abuse, and torture; families of journalists are also intimidated and harassed in a bid to keep them silent. Iranian authorities maintain one of the world’s toughest Internet censorship regimes, blocking millions of websites, including news and social networking sites; using sophisticated techniques to detect interference with anti-censorship programs; and intimidating reporters via social networks. The regime also frequently jams satellite signals, particularly that of the BBC Persian-language service.

Lowlight: The regime has particularly targeted the BBC, especially since the 2009 disputed presidential elections, when the BBC Persian-language service extensively covered protesters describing abuse by security forces. Relatives and friends of BBC staff members have been arrested, questioned, or intimidated. Tehran has jammed BBC satellite signals, and the broadcaster reported a “sophisticated cyber-attack” on its email and Internet services that coincided with efforts to jam its satellite feeds into Iran.

Click here for more on Iran.


5. Equatorial Guinea

Leadership: Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, in power since a 1979 coup

How Censorship Works: Obiang’s government tightly controls all news and information over national airwaves. Technically, some outlets are privately owned, but none are independent, as Obiang and his associates exert direct or indirect control. State mediado not provide international news coverage unless Obiang or another official travels abroad. Censors enforce rigid rules to ensure the regime is portrayed positively; journalists who don’t comply risk prison under criminal statutes including defamation. Security agents closely shadow foreign journalists and restrict photography or filming that documents poverty. The government paid three Washington-based public relations firms a total of US$1.2 million between April and October 2010 to produce positive news about Equatorial Guinea, according to a report by the U.S. Department of Justice.

Lowlight: At the outbreak of the Arab Spring, the government banned state media from mentioning on air any of the North African or Middle Eastern countries involved. In March 2011, authorities detained and suspended a state radio announcer for a mere reference to a “leader of the Libyan revolution.”

Click here for more on Equatorial Guinea.


6. Uzbekistan

Leadership: President Islam Karimov, first elected in 1991

How Censorship Works: No independent media outlets are based in Uzbekistan. Independent journalists—mostly contributors to outlets outside the country—are subject to interrogation and prosecution under defamation charges or outdated statutes such as “insulting national traditions.” They and their families are harassed and smeared; some have seen sensitive personal information published by state media. MuhammadBekjanov and Yusuf Ruzimuradov of the opposition newspaper Erk have been imprisonedlonger than any other jailed journalists in the world, CPJ research shows. Internet access to independent news websites and online broadcasters is blocked, as are some keywords and topics on individual Web pages. Foreign journalists are denied visas and accreditation.

Lowlight: Karimov’s own nephew, the critical independent journalist Dzhamshid Karimov, vanished in 2006 after visiting his mother in the hospital. His friends eventually discovered that he was being held against his will in a psychiatric clinic, where he remained captive until November 2011.

Click here for more on Uzbekistan.


7. Burma

Newspapers on sale in Rangoon. Censorship is so extensive that papers cannot publish more than weekly. (AP/Khin Maung Win)

Newspapers on sale in Rangoon. Censorship is so extensive that papers cannot publish more than weekly. (AP/Khin Maung Win)

Leadership: President Thein Sein, a former general who assumed office in 2011 after a 2010 election that heavily favored military-backed candidates

How Censorship Works: Although Burma has transitioned from military to civilian government, released journalists among hundreds of political prisoners, and promised more reforms, its vast censorship structure remains in place. All privately run news publications in Burma are forced to publish weekly rather than daily due to stifling prepublication censorship requirements. The government’s Press Scrutiny and Registration Division (PSRD) censors news that could reflect poorly on the military or the government it backs, and imposes a complete blackout on reporting of the armed conflict with ethnic Kachin rebels in the remote north. The government dominates radio and television with a steady stream of propaganda. Laws bar the ownership of a computer without a license and ban the dissemination or posting of unauthorized materials over the Internet. Prison sentences have been used to punish reporters working for exile-run media groups. Regulations imposed in 2011 banned the use of flash drives and voice-over-Internet-protocol (VoIP) communication in Internet cafés. Local reporters with international agencies are subject to constant police surveillance; others only publish under pseudonyms to prevent possible reprisals. Foreign reporters are regularly denied journalist visas unless the government aims to showcase a state-sponsored event. Those discovered reporting on tourism visas are expelled.

Lowlight: In February 2012, the PSRD banned a commentary written by journalist Ludu Sein Win about a media conference where Ministry of Information officials discussed a proposed new media law that would allow more press freedom—including an end to prepublication censorship. Sein Win wrote tongue-in-cheek that those who attended the conference were “helping to make the rope to hang themselves.” The banned article was later published by the exile-run Irrawaddy.

Click here for more on Burma.


8. Saudi Arabia

Leadership: King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud, who succeeded his half-brother, King Fahd, in 2005

How Censorship Works: The Saudi kingdom’s media law is highly restrictive and vaguely worded, with penalties severe and arbitrary. Authorities have the right to appoint and fire senior editors in traditional media at will; after the emergence of a vibrant, unregulated online news sector, they introduced similar restrictions on the Internet. Regulations require government registration and approval of editors for any organization or individual conducting “electronic journalism” or “displaying audio and visual material” on websites, while criteria for approval are vaguely defined. No foreign or local journalists are granted access to the Eastern Province, where protesters have been calling for political reforms and greater rights for the Shiite minority since February 2011. Local news websites that have reported on the unrest have been shut down and their editors arrested. Foreign news about events outside Saudi Arabia is available, but international news outlets operating inside its borders limit their reporting in order to maintain accreditation.

Lowlights: Saudi authorities expelled Riyadh-based Reuters correspondent Ulf Laessingin March 2011, angered by his coverage of political unrest. Laessing wrote: “State security agents knocked at dawn at my hotel room after I had covered Shiite protests in the Eastern Province. A week later, the government withdrew my accreditation.”

Click here for more on Saudi Arabia.


9. Cuba

Leadership: President Raúl Castro, who took over from his brother, Fidel Castro, in 2008; the country has been a one-party communist state since Fidel Castro took power in a 1959 revolution

How Censorship Works: All authorized domestic news media are controlled by the Communist Party, which recognizes freedom of the press only “in accordance with the goals of the socialist society.” Internet service providers are obliged to block objectionable content. Independent journalists and bloggers all work on websites that are hosted overseas and updated through embassies or costly hotel connections. Although the last of the 29 independent journalists imprisoned in the 2003 Black Spring crackdown was released in April 2011, the government continues to persecute critical journalists with arbitrary arrests, short-term detentions, beatings, surveillance, and smear campaigns on state media and on the Internet. Government supporters sometimes gather outside the homes of critical journalists to intimidate them. Officials grant visas to foreign journalists selectively.

Lowlight: Prominent critical blogger Yoani Sánchez was refused a visa to leave the country in February for the 19th time, she said. Sánchez has been targeted in the past with smear campaigns, cyber-attacks on her blog, and assault.

Click here for more on Cuba.


10. Belarus

The government blocked access to social media sites to keep people from learning about this July 2011 protest--which was then<br /> broken up by police.. (AP/Dmitry Brushko)

The government blocked access to social media sites to keep people from learning about this July 2011 protest–which was then broken up by police.. (AP/Dmitry Brushko)

Leadership: President Aleksandr Lukashenko, in office since 1994

How Censorship Works: Lukashenko’s wide-ranging anti-press tactics have included politicized prosecution of journalists; imprisonments; travel bans against critical reporters; debilitating raids on independent newsrooms; wholesale confiscation of newspapers and seizure of reporting equipment; and failure to investigate the murdersof at least three journalists in the past 10 years. After the rigged election of 2010, hecracked down on what was left of the independent media, sending it underground. Working as a journalist without government-issued accreditation is prohibited; television is state-owned or state-controlled. In 2010, Lukashenko signed a law to censor the Internet, created an agency to implement the law, and placed his own son to head it. Shortly after it was created, the agency blacklisted independent and opposition websites. Public access to the Internet requires a government-issued ID, which allows the KGB to monitor users. At least one opposition website has been the target ofhacking attacks, including one in which a password obtained via malware was used to insert a false news story about an opposition politician.

Lowlight: Following the December 2010 presidential vote, Lukashenko imprisoned prominent independent journalists Irina Khalip and Natalya Radina on fabricated charges in retaliation for reporting on post-election protests. Khalip was later released from prison under heavy restrictions, while Radina was forced to flee Belarus to avoid a repeated incarceration.

Click here for more on Belarus.


The runners-up:

These heavily censored countries nearly made CPJ’s list.

  • Press freedom in Turkmenistan, which was among CPJ’s 10 Most Censored Countries in 2006, remains in dire condition. All media are government-controlled; editors are appointed by President Gurbanguly Berdymuhammedov; and access to independent news websites is blocked.
  • In China, some commercially-minded news media test boundaries while Internet users get around Web blocking. But authorities make extensive use of propaganda directives; impose travel and access bans; jam signals and censor international broadcasts; and intimidate critical journalists through job dismissals and imprisonment. Beijing is also a model for censorship regimes elsewhere and an exporter of censorship technology, including to several countries in CPJ’s top 10.
  • In Ethiopia, censorship has become far more restrictive in recent years. The government of Meles Zenawi appoints managers of broadcasters and state newspapers and licenses all media. Anti-terrorism legislation criminalizes any reporting that the Ethiopian government deems favorable to opposition movements designated as terrorist.
  • Government officials in Vietnam meet weekly with editors to give coverage instructions. Reporting on sensitive topics such as relations with China can result in arrest and imprisonment.
  • Authorities in Sudan frequently confiscate newspapers, which are the widespread form of media. This year, security forces have increasingly adopted the technique of confiscating newspaper editions wholesale to inflict financial losses on publishers.
  • In Azerbaijan, there are no foreign or independent broadcasters on the airwaves, and the few journalists who work on independent newspapers or websites are subject to intimidation tactics, including imprisonment on fabricated charges.

 

EDITOR’S NOTE: The Burma section of this report has been corrected to reflect that President Thein Sein was elected in 2010, not in 2011.

Ethiopianism Paradigm of Change and Liberation June 2012

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First African dictator to be condemned by ICC Charles Taller paved the way for the African dictators like Issias Afewerki, Melese Zenawie etc…

Charles Taller the First African dictator to be condemned by ICC paved the way for the  African dictators like  Issias Afewerki, Melese Zenawie  etc…

 

Charles Taylor (1990)

Eritrean president Isaias Afwerki in joint press briefing in Asmara, December, 10, 2002. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Former President of Liberia 1997-2003 is “criminally responsible” to provide weapons, in exchange for diamonds, the rebel Revolutionary United Front (RUF) in Sierra Leone, killing dozens of mutilated and enslaved thousands of people, according to the Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL). In the horn of Africa Isaias Afwerki have prepared and trained the undefeated Alshabab with over 11’000 AMISON solider to this day and is training thousands to this day to destabilize the region and Somalia since 1991.

Taller ex-guerrillas and ex-con in the United States, was born 29th Taylor January 1948 at Arthington, 25 kilometers northeast of the Liberian capital of Monrovia in a family of fifteen brothers.

After studying economics at Boston University (USA), returned to Liberia in April 1980 after the military coup, to join the government of Samuel Doe, who was to manage procurement.

But the charge did not last long because in 1983 he was the embezzlement of over a million dollars to an account in the U.S., after he fled to this country accused, where he was arrested and sent to prison, but in 1985 he escaped from prison along with four other prisoners saw the bars of a disused laundry.

English: Muammar Qaddafi, the Libyan chief of ...

In is exile in Libya , the protection of Muammar al-Qaddafi decided enjoyed, and later in the Ivory Coast, where he founded the National Patriotic Forces of Liberia (NPFL) like that  of Isaias Afwerki  and Melese Zenawie supported and financed by dead Libyan dictator while in struggle. He even declared in his parliaments in 1991” Melese is converted in Libya to get the money.”

24th December 1989, more than four years after escaping from prison in the U.S., Taylor in the Ivorian city of Nimbi on the Liberian border again, at the top of the NPFL and came with his troops to Liberia in an attempt to Doe, who eventually assassinated in September 1990, to overthrow.

 Charles had an impact on the civil war in Liberia (1990-1995), with thousands dead and nearly a million refugees.

He was involved after the intervention of the United Nations and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the various factions in the conflict, in Abuja (Nigeria) signed a peace agreement on 20 August 1995, was created by the body, transition ruled the country until the elections in July 1997.

Taylor, in his new group, the National Patriotic Party won (PNP) , the election with 75.32 percent of the vote, despite his campaign slogan “He killed my mother, My father was killed, but you will agree. ”

According to experts from the African country, why the Presidency of Liberia, Taylor has been so strong campaign of terror and anguish of the people to start a new civil war, when he defeated was.

During his tenure, Taylor provided arms to the rebels of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) in Sierra Leone, one of the stakeholder groups from the civil war in this country that has killed and maimed tens of thousands of enslaved people and to exploit than the diamond mines of the country. In parallel the the horn of  African student of Mohammed Kaddafi Isasias Afwerki with hundreds of training camps to destabilize the region not realy helping them for the liberation of their country but as a proxy by it own ends are working thousands to work in the farm and the new find gold mines.

In return, Taylor received RUF these gems , the so-called “blood diamonds”  while Isaias helps him to get a continues  support by the Mediterranean dead dictator of Libya .

In May 2001 the UN imposed sanctions on Liberia, and two years later, in June 2003 accused the Special Court in Sierra Leone, founded in 1996 and supported by the United Nations, against Taylor for war crimes and crimes humanity. The same was with Eritrea two sanctioned one in 2006 and 2011 nothing changes to this day.

For Taller in 1 August approved in 2003 by the UN to send a multinational peacekeeping force in the country and the day after Taylor resigned, after which they began their exile in Calabar announced (Nigeria).

29th March 2006 Taller  was arrested while trying to flee Nigeria, knowing that the Nigerian government had accepted his deportation and extradition to the Liberian authorities.

On the same day  rasladado in Freetown (Sierra Leone) was where he caught , and soon afterwards the Dutch government agreed that the trial was held in The Hague while the United Kingdom agreed that Taylor to serve his sentence in one of its prisons.

20th June 2006, Taylor came to The Hague court on eleven counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity, including murder and mutilation of civilians, with women and girls as sex slaves and forced recruitment of children and adults in exchange for smuggling. The Eritrean deadly dictator also forces children to become his proxy fighters form Tigerian region of Ethiopia.

The process began in June 2007 and he said more than 110 witnesses, including the model Naomi Campbell, whose dictator was “blood diamonds” have to.

In March 2011, was negotiating for the test seen and after more than a year of deliberations, the Special Court for Sierra Leone on 26 April convicted and announced the sentence today.

 

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Geo-strategy on growth and defense between G8 and NATO with Russia

According to CNN rescent report  President Barack Obama and fellow leaders at the Group of Eight meeting he hosted Saturday put job creation and economic growth at the top of their to-do list.
Merkel, second from right, talks with Medvedev, right, during a bilateral meeting on the sidelines of the G8 Summit.
“(They) must be our top priority. A stable growing European economy is in everybody’s best interest, including the United States’,” Obama told reporters after the two-day Camp David retreat in Maryland concluded.
At the same time, leaders stated “that the right measures are not the same for each of us.”
The G8 meeting was one of two high-stakes, back-to-back weekend summits scheduled over the weekend. On Sunday, NATO kicks off its two-day summit in Chicago, with a focus on the Afghanistan ,Syria and Iran.
Authorities announced Saturday that three people were charged with planning violent attacks during the Chicago summit.
The men, termed “self-proclaimed anarchists” by authorities, allegedly conspired to attack Obama’s Chicago campaign headquarters, the Chicago mayor’s home and police stations, authorities said. An Illinois judge set bail at $1.5 million for each of the three suspects arrested Wednesday.
The 10 members of the G8 Summit pose for a group portait at Camp David, Maryland. Left to right: European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso, Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev, Japanese PM Yoshihiko Noda, Canadian PM Stephen Harper, French President Francois Hollande, U.S. President Barack Obama, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, British PM David Cameron, Italian PM Mario Monti and European Council President Herman Van Rompuy.

Obama: G8 unified in approach to Iran

Summit protesters, including those affiliated with Occupy Chicago, held rallies Saturday.
G8 leaders — from the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, Italy, Canada and Russia — issued a declaration detailing their commitment to ensuring adequate energy and dealing with climate change; providing food security and nutrition in Africa; promoting democratic transitions in the Middle East; and supporting political transition in Syria. They reiterated “grave concern” over Iran’s nuclear program and the need to ensure an adequate oil supply.
But it was the global economy dominated that dominated the Camp David sessions.
The group dealt with an economically weakened, debt-laden Europe and faced the questions of whether massive deficit cuts trumpeted by German Chancellor Angela Merkel or economic stimulus will help the continent grow its way out of the current crisis. The language in their declaration Saturday appeared to focus as much on growth as austerity.
While discussing economic challenges and progress in the United States, Obama said the eurozone is more complicated.
“There are 17 countries in the eurozone that need to come to an agreement,” the president said, citing the crisis affecting Greece and other nations. “Europe has taken significant steps to manage the crisis.”
Hanging over the deliberations was the fate of Greece, which has been unable to form an elected government. Many analysts believe that Athens will be forced to exit the eurozone shortly, dropping the euro currency and possibly further rattling economic confidence.
“We welcome the ongoing discussion in Europe on how to generate growth, while maintaining a firm commitment to implement fiscal consolidation to be assessed on a structural basis,” the leaders said in a statement.
“We agree on the importance of a strong and cohesive eurozone for global stability and recovery, and we affirm our interest in Greece remaining in the eurozone while respecting its commitments. We all have an interest in the success of specific measures to strengthen the resilience of the eurozone and growth in Europe.”
 Obama and other members of the G* Summit review documents at Camp David.
The group also addressed the effects of sanctions on Iran over its nuclear ambitions. Iran says it wants nuclear power for peaceful purposes, but world powers fear that it is working to develop nuclear weaponry.
Tough sanctions on Iran are slated to take effect June 28, and a full embargo of Iranian oil by the European Union is set for July 1. There is concern about whether a sufficient supply of oil and oil products from other countries will make up for a lack of Iranian oil.
“There have been increasing disruptions in the supply of oil to the global market over the past several months, which pose a substantial risk to global economic growth. In response, major producers have increased their output while drawing prudently on excess capacity,” the G8 leaders said in a statement. They said they stood ready to call upon the International Energy Agency to take appropriate action to ensure that the market is fully and timely supplied.
Mike Froman, a White House national security adviser for international economic affairs, said the atmosphere at the summit was congenial and there was “very good interaction” among European leaders.
No one was defensive as the leaders shared their perspectives on the need to deal with debt and deficits and the importance of promoting economic growth. That included Merkel, a proponent of tough austerity measures, and newly elected French President Francois Hollande, who has different views on austerity and growth.
There was agreement among the leaders that North Korea faces further isolation if it continues its pursuit of a nuclear program.
Obama said the group believes that a “peaceful resolution and a political transition is preferable” in Syria and the group said it is “deeply concerned about violence and loss of life.”
The world leaders support U.N. and Arab League envoy Kofi Annan’s six-point peace plan to end the 14-month crisis in Syria, an initiative that calls for a cease-fire. While all of the nations back the Annan plan at the U.N. Security Council, there have been differences between Russia and China and other nations on how to tackle the crisis in Syria.
The United States and other countries have urged Syrian President Bashar al-Assad to step aside and have initiated tough sanctions against the government. Russia and China’s stated position is to call for an end to violence, but through diplomacy and negotiation, not official sanctions.
Earlier Saturday, Obama said leaders are hopeful about the dramatic political transition in Myanmar, also known as Burma.
“On a brighter note, we had the opportunity to discuss Burma, and all of us are hopeful that the political process and transition and transformation that is beginning to take place there takes root.”
A few hundred activists with ties to Ethiopia protested the invitation of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi to the G8 summit. They rallied in Thurmont, the town nearest Camp David. They decried Zenawi’s rule as authoritarian. An Ethiopian journalist Ababa Gelaw affronted and  intercepted  the speech of the African dictator.
On Sunday, the war in Afghanistan is expected to dominate discussions at the NATO summit. Afghan President Hamid Karzai and Pakistani President Asif Zardari are both expected to attend the meeting.
NATO leaders are currently on a timetable to withdraw all of the alliance’s combat troops from Afghanistan in 2014.
Senior administration officials tell CNN that NATO members have tentatively agreed on a security transition plan from NATO’s International Security Assistance Force to the Afghan National Security Forces before 2014. The plan, which also lays out a NATO training and advisory role after 2014, is expected to be formally adopted at the summit.
One of the key issues to be discussed in Chicago is who will pay to build up Afghan security forces during and after the NATO drawdown. Afghan national security forces should total around 350,000 by 2015, according to CNN National Security Analyst Peter Bergen. Karzai’s government can afford to cover only a fraction of the cost, which is expected to total roughly $4 billion annually after 2014, Bergen notes.
Non-U.S. ISAF countries are being asked to come up with $1.3 billion, the officials said.
Another issue is Islamabad’s continued blockade of much-needed NATO supplies over Pakistani roads to Afghanistan. Pakistan has kept its airspace open but closed its ground routes after the death of about two dozen Pakistani soldiers in November at the hands of NATO forces at a post on the Afghan-Pakistan border. NATO insists that the incident was an accident. Negotiations on the issue continue, the senior administration officials said.
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” Melese’s 4 Point Plan for Issais Afwerki” caricatur of Eritrean- Ethiopian Dictatorial War games

Thumbnail<br /><br />This is a caricatural presentation of Ethiopian & Eritrean leaders trip in an inevitable eventual collision course between the two belligerence dictatorial regimes. Since war is their Reason d’ètre.

The Ethiopian dictator in his 17 of April, 2012 Parliament address has proposed 4 point plan as a solution of his regime to f his brother in arm Issias’s Afwerki of Asmara.
The recent kidnapping and killing of foreign tourists in the Afar region of Ethiopia has ignited the conflict between the two belligerence states.

Since 1998 Ethiopia and Eritrea did not stop rekindling the century old colonial inherited conflict. Eritrea is a pure colonial Creation of Italian ambition as a spring board to conquer the Horn of Africa with undefined boarder openings which recently virtually demarcated but Ethiopia never endorsed…


Adwa 116 anniversary the Victory against the Scramble of Africa, March 1st 1896 Prof. Muse Tegegne

The name Adwa divides and unifies Ethiopians today. 116 years ago the 1st of March 1896 it unified not only Ethiopia but the whole people of African descent and the rest of people under colonial subjugation. Today the name in Ethiopia signifies division dismemberment. It was in 1991 that the son of Adwa Melese Zenawie took over the reign of power in the palace of Menelik II. This is the same throne where the king of kings the lion of Adwa the pride of all people of African descent seat. Melese the worst dictator Ethiopia has ever seen is set to balkanize Ethiopia, a country Menelik fought and won the greatest battle against the Scramble for Africa. Melse is also Born in Adwa what a  sad historical coincidence .

The battle of Adwa of March first of March, 1896 a great victory and pride for Africans at home Diaspora. The victory assured that Ethiopia successfully resists European colonization.

Italy the late comer to the scramble for Africa in the late 19th century was allocated to Ethiopia but just needed to take control. The Italians and the rest of the European powers present at the Berlin Conference 1880’s wrongly assumed that Ethiopia was made up of rival tribes fighting one another and thought it would be a quick promenade for their 20,000 strong highly trained invasion forces, they never though these what they call “tribal back word savages “could be united raising a much larger patriotic people’s army to defend their country and even to win an all out war.

 

Map of the Battle of Adowa, between the forces of General Oreste Baratieri, Italian governor of Eritrea and Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia.

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The main cause of the Battle being the European colonial ambition it manifested through the deferent treaty the colonial powers used to cheat the Africans. This was highly manifested by Italo Ethiopian Treaty known as the Wechale Treaty. The colonial manipulation started when Menelik II came to the throne in 1889 the Italians thought that he would surrender sovereignty to them since they had been supplying him with ammunitions. They succeeded to manipulate the king on May 2, 1889, to make him sign the Treaty of Uccialli in the province of Wello, with which Menelik accorded for the Italians some land in Tigre to the already concession he has made by letting them to take Eritrea. In this famous once sided treaty, they tricked Menelik by having two different versions- one in Italian and other in Amharic. The secret of the Italian plan was manifested on article 17 which read in one in Amharic and other in Italian. Thus the Italian version read: –
The Emperor consents to use the Italian government for all the business he does with all the other Powers or Governments“.
The Amharic version reads:-
The Emperor has the option to communicate with the help of the Italian government for all matters that he wants with the kings of Europe.”

When Menelik realized that he had been cheated he immediately rejected the treaty and refused all further offers of gifts from the Italians. Turkey, Russia and France stood to the Ethiopian version of the story. Finally Menelik decided to confront the advancing Italian Army which has already occupied Tigre Provence without his contentment.

As a result in September of 1895, Menelik, King of Kings of Ethiopia mobilized the population of Ethiopia to arms. Over 100,000 Ethiopians gathered under his rank to liberate his occupy province by the Italian forces.

 

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“God, in his bounty, has struck down my enemies and enlarged my empire and preserved me to this day. I have reigned by the grace of God….Enemies have come who would ruin our country and change our religion. They have passed beyond the sea which God gave us as our frontier….These enemies have advanced, burrowing into the country like moles. With God’s help I will get rid of them.”

Menelik divided his Army under three leaders:-

  1. Emperor Menelik II, The King of Kings of Ethiopia
  2. Empress Taytu Betul, The Wife of Menlik II
  3. Negus Tekle Haymanot Tessemma ,
  4. Ras Welle Betul ;
  5. RasMengesha Atikem ;
  6. Ras Mengesha Yohannes ;
  7. Ras Alula Engida ;
  8. Ras Mikael of Wollo;
  9. Ras Makonnen Wolde Mikael;
  10. FitawrariGebeyyehu,

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On the night of 29 February and the early morning of 1 March three Italian brigades advanced separately towards Adwa over narrow mountain tracks, while a fourth remained camped. The Italiano Forces were led by:-

  1. General Oreste Baratieri ;
  2. Brgdaire Matteo Albertone,
  3. Giuseppe Arimondi,
  4. Giuseppe Ellena and
  5. Vittorio Dabormida.

 

These invading Italian forces were made up of 18,000 infantry and 56 artillery guns, and with many thousands of Eritrean militias were prepared to fight against Menelik II on the battle field.

At 6:00 on the 1st of March 1896 the Italian Gen. Albertone used the Eritrean askari peasant fighters to face their brother Ethiopian as is always the game to make the enemy to kill one another at a place called Kidane Meret. This was the hill where the Ethiopians had managed to set up their mountain out front. On the hill side though outnumbered by the Eritrean askaris, the Ethiopian fighters were able to hold their position for two hours which they broke the rank of the Italians and able to capture General Albertone’s. At such heroic fight the Italian and their remaining askaris dispersed leaving the wounded and the dead. Seeing the capture of the Albertone Gen Arimondi’s brigade joined the fight at the last minute and start punching the Ethiopians to liberate the captured Italians. The Ethiopians fought courageously and battled the colonizers three hours while Menelik himself joined the combat with his 25,000 strong Shewans people’s army and broke their back bones once for good. Brigadier Dabormida now made a fatal error as he retreated from Menelik’s push, he was cornered into a narrow hill where he was ransacked by Ras Mikael ‘s Oromo Army . They wiped him out, his body was never recovered. The last blow came at noon the next day when Negus Tekle Haymonot led his Gojjam forces break the back bone of the remaining Italian brigade. This happened when Negus was attacked by the last of the invading army which he destroyed and by one o’clock the battle was finished with victory to the African Army.

The battle was bloody over 8,000 Italians died and 1500 wounded many captured fighting hard to save the pride of European colonizers, but with no avail. Almost the same amount of Ethiopians perished in this decisive war of history in the African heartland after the war of the Zulu in South Africa and Mhadist victory against the Britons in Khartoum led by Mahadi.

“In Ethiopia, the military genius of Menelik II was in the best tradition of Piankhi, the great ruler of ancient Egypt and Nubia or ancient Ethiopia, who drove out the Italians in 1896 and maintained the liberties of that ancient free empire of Black men.” Huggins and Jackson analyzed the victory not only in terms of its significance to the postcolonial African world, but also in terms of its linkage to the tradition of ancient African glories and victories. An Introduction to African Civilizations, Huggins and Jackson write

 

 

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Five minutes to dooms day the “end of the world as we know”

It is not only the Mayan Calendar which announces  the end of the world as we know but also the Atomic Scientists’ “Doomsday Clock” is set at 5 minutes to midnight but may tick forward or backward at any moment in 2012.  The Doomsday Clock came into being in 1947 as a way for atomic scientists to warn the world of the dangers of nuclear weapons. That year, the Bulletin set the time at seven minutes to midnight, with midnight symbolizing humanity’s destruction. By 1949, it was at three minutes to midnight as the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union deteriorated. In 1953, after the first test of the hydrogen bomb, the doomsday clock ticked to two minutes until midnight. According to Robert Socolow, a Princeton professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering and a member of the Bulletin’s Science and Security board. “Talks on climate change have resulted in little progress, the panel found. In fact, politics seemed to trump science in discussions over the last two years. We need the political leadership to affirm the primacy of science as a way of knowing, or problems will be far worse than they are already.”     ——- Scientists today set the hands of the infamous “Doomsday Clock” forward one minute from two years ago. The clock is a symbol of the threat of humanity’s imminent destruction from nuclear or biological weapons, climate change and other human-caused disasters.   “It is now five minutes to midnight,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (BAS) director Kennette Benedict announced at a press conference in Washington, D.C. This announces  symbolic step closer to doomsday, a change from the clock’s previous mark of six minutes to midnight, set in January 2010. In order for  deliberations  how to update the clock’s time, the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists focused on the current state of nuclear arsenals around the globe, disastrous events such as the Fukushima nuclear meltdown, and biosecurity issues such as the creation of an airborne H5N1 flu strain. The Bulletin — and the clock ­— were at their most optimistic in 1991, when the Cold War thawed and the United States and Russia began cutting their arsenals. That year, the Bulletin set the clock at 17 minutes to midnight. From then until 2010, however, it was a gradual creep back toward destruction, as hopes of total nuclear disarmament vanished and threats of nuclear terrorism and climate change reared their heads. In 2010, the Bulletin found some hope in arms reduction treaties and international climate talks and nudged the minute hand of the Doomsday Clock back to six minutes from midnight from its previous post at five to midnight. With today’s decision, the Bulletin repudiated that optimism. The panel considers a mix of long-term trends and immediate events in the decision-making process, said Benedict. Trends might include factors like improved solar energy technology to combat climate change, she said, while political events such as the recent United Nations climate meeting in Durban play a role as well. This year, the Fukushima nuclear disaster made a big impression. “We’re trying to weight whether that was a wake-up call, whether it will make people take a closer look at this new and very powerful technology, or whether people will go on with business as usual,” Benedict told LiveScience on Monday in an interview before the announcement of the “doomsday time” decision. [Top 10 Alternative Energy Bets] Other factors that played into the decision included the growing interest in nuclear power from countries such as Turkey, Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates, Benedict said. The Bulletin panel found that despite hopes of global agreements about nuclear weapons, nuclear power and climate change in 2010, little progress has been made. Lawrence Krauss, an Arizona State University professor and the co-chair of the BAS Board of Sponsors declared the  the coming doom :- “The world still has approximately over 20,000 deployed nuclear weapons with enough power to destroy the world’s inhabitants many times over,” said “We also have the prospect of nuclear weapons being used by terrorist non-state actors.”

CountryWarheads active/total[nb 1]Year of first testCTBT status
The five nuclear-weapon states under the NPT
United States United States1,950 / 8,500[3]1945 (“Trinity“)Signatory
Russia Russia (former  Soviet Union)2,430 / 11,000[3]1949 (“RDS-1“)Ratifier
United Kingdom United Kingdom160 / 225[3]1952 (“Hurricane“)Ratifier
France France290 / 300[3]1960 (“Gerboise Bleue“)Ratifier
China China180 / 240[3]1964 (“596“)Signatory
Non-NPT nuclear powers
India Indian.a. / 80–100[3]1974 (“Smiling Buddha“)Non-signatory
Pakistan Pakistann.a. / 90–110[3]1998 (“Chagai-I“)Non-signatory
North Korea North Korean.a. / <10[3]2006 (2006 test)Non-signatory
Undeclared nuclear powers
Israel Israeln.a. / 80–200[3][4]possibly 1979 (See Vela Incident)Signatory


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Mosquitoes “disappearing” in certain parts of tropics and “appearing” in an usual parts of the earth ?


The New era mosquitoes are manifesting in areas they are not used to be seen before. Like this summer in Thailand seems most of the mosquitoes disappear almost in Bangkok. Many attributes to the climate change .

 

We invite you to read the following articles to make your judgments and give us your experiences in your region .

 

Prof. Muse Tegegne


Mosquitoes ‘disappearing’ in some parts of Africa

By Matt McGrathScience reporter, BBC World Service

A mosquito feedingMosquitoes are now a rare sight in some parts of Africa

Malaria-carrying mosquitoes are disappearing in some parts of Africa, but scientists are unsure as to why.

Figures indicate controls such as anti-mosquito bed nets are having a significant impact on the incidence of malaria in some sub-Saharan countries.

But in Malaria Journal, researchers say mosquitoes are also disappearing from areas with few controls.

They are uncertain if mosquitoes are being eradicated or whether they will return with renewed vigour.

Data from countries such as Tanzania, Eritrea, Rwanda, Kenya and Zambia all indicate that the incidence of malaria is dropping fast.

Researchers believe this is due to effective implementation of control programmes, especially the deployment of bed nets treated with insecticide.

But a team of Danish and Tanzanian scientists say this is not the whole story. For more than 10 years they have been collecting and counting the number of mosquitoes caught in thousands of traps in Tanzania.

In 2004 they caught over 5,000 insects. In 2009 that had dropped to just 14.

More importantly, these collections took place in villages that weren’t using bed nets.

‘Chaotic rainfall’

One possibility for the reduction in numbers is climate change. Patterns of rainfall in these years were more chaotic in these regions of Tanzania and often fell outside the rainy season. The scientists say this may have disturbed the natural cycle of mosquito development.

Continue reading the main story

“Start Quote

It is most likely we will have an epidemic of malaria ”

Professor Dan Meyrowitsch,University of Copenhagen

But the lead author of the study, Professor Dan Meyrowitsch from the University of Copenhagen, says that he is not convinced that it is just the changing climate.

“It could be partly due to this chaotic rainfall, but personally I don’t think it can explain such a dramatic decline in mosquitoes, to the extent we can say that the malaria mosquitoes are almost eradicated in these communities.

“What we should consider is that there may be a disease among the mosquitoes, a fungi or a virus, or they’re may have been some environmental changes in the communities that have resulted in a drop in the number of mosquitoes”

The research team also found anecdotal evidence that their discovery was not an isolated case.

Prof Meyrowitsch added: “Other scientists are saying they can’t test their drugs because there are no children left with malaria.

“They observed this in communities with no large interventions against malaria or mosquitoes. It may be the same scenario that the specific mosquitoes that carry malaria are declining very fast now”

The researchers are unsure if mosquitoes will return to these regions. If they do, one particular cause for concern is the young people who have not been exposed to malaria over the past five or six years since the mosquitoes began to decline.

“If the mosquito population starts coming up again” says Professor Meyrowitsch “and my own assumption is that it will, it is most likely we will have an epidemic of malaria with a higher level of disease and mortality especially amongst these children who have not been exposed.”


Is the mosquito menace growing in the UK?
Virginia Brown


Mosquito sucking blood

Complaints of mosquito bites are on the rise in the UK. So should Britons brace themselves for a future mosquito menace?

Hovering perfectly at ear level with a lingering, bothersome whine, mosquitoes leave you with bites that lead to itchy, swollen welts.

In much of the world, affected by malaria, repelling them is a matter of life and death. In the UK they are a mere annoyance, interrupting summer holidays and barbecues.

Based on a survey of UK local authorities, reports of mosquito bites over the last 10 years are 2.5 times greater than in the 10 years up to 1996.

NHS Direct statistics show 9,061 calls in England complaining of bites and stings from early May this year to now – up nearly 15% from last summer. Not all bite complaints are due to mosquitoes – many can be attributed to bedbugs, midges and fleas.

But conditions in the UK, particularly in southeastern England, are increasingly hospitable to mosquitoes.

“The wet weather through May and June this year, along with a warm summer, has affected the population because mosquitoes like the standing breeding water,” says zoologist Michael Bonsall at Oxford University.

It’s difficult to track mosquito numbers accurately, but the UK authorities are trying to do so.

Mosquito snapshot

  • Culex pipiens is the most common mosquito in Britain
  • Only females bite humans, males feed off nectar
  • Bites often occur at dawn and dusk, when mosquitoes’ internal clocks tell them it’s feeding time
  • A quarter of British species do not bite humans but feed on animals and birds
  • Anopheles mosquitoes are the only known carriers of malaria
  • Red bumps and itching caused by bites is an allergic reaction to the mosquito’s saliva

The Health Protection Agency has organised the Mosquito Recording Scheme to look into where and how mosquitoes live and breed.

And the Chartered Institute of Environmental Health, with help from the HPA, has created Mosquito Watch, a voluntary reporting system geared towards collecting and analysing various specimens.

Not only do mosquitoes swarm over pools of standing water, including bowls left outside for pets, they appear under man-hole covers and even travel on London’s Tube network.

But while mosquitoes transmit deadly diseases in many parts of the world, they do not cause major harm in the UK.

They may spoil picnics in the park, but they are usually only a major problem when Britons travel to countries with malaria, dengue or other mosquito-borne diseases.

But once upon a time, malaria-carrying mosquitoes could be found in the salt marshes of southeastern England.

It is believed that malaria – literally “bad air” – dates back at least to Roman times in the UK, and outbreaks occurred as recently as the years just following World War I.

British doctor Ronald Ross, who discovered the malarial parasite living in the gastrointestinal tract of the Anopheles mosquito in the 19th Century, recruited teams to eliminate the larvae from stagnant pools and marshes.

Black-and-white striped Asian tiger mosquito bites a humanThe Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) has been spotted as close as Belgium

Malaria in England had effectively died out by the 1950s, mostly due to the draining of much of the marshland where mosquitoes bred.

But because of the growth of global travel, the number of imported cases of the disease in the UK has risen, with nearly 2,000 a year today.

In many cases, live mosquitoes have been found on aircraft, or travelling in luggage, having been transported from countries with malaria.

On rare occasions, people may even have contracted malaria in Europe and North America, dubbed “airport malaria”.

Five of the 30-plus species of mosquito found in the UK are not native. One variety is coming alarmingly close to the UK. The Asian tiger mosquito – Aedes albopictus – known for its white and black striped pattern has been spotted as close as Belgium.

Start Quote

It is possible that Aedes albopictus [Asian tiger mosquito] could make its way to the UK”

Dr James LoganMedical entomologist

While the species does not carry malaria, it does transmit West Nile virus, Yellow fever and dengue.

“It is possible that Aedes albopictus could make its way to the UK,” says Dr James Logan, medical entomologist at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.

“Because they lay their drought-resistant eggs in transportable materials, like used tyres, there is a possibility that they can be transported to a country where they are not normally found.

“Some studies suggest that they could survive the UK winter, however, to date this species has not been found in the UK and the HPA are keeping a watchful eye on it.”

Bonsall agrees and adds that predictive models show how malaria-carrying species could even make their way to areas such as the North Kent marshes, Essex, Norfolk and Suffolk.

Mosquitoes are becoming immune to the insecticides used to treat them – via spray or bed nets, according to a recent study from Senegal. Between 2007 and 2010, insects with a resistance to a popular type of pesticide rose from 8% to 48%.

“This could be a big problem for future control,” says Dr Hilary Ranson, head of the vector group at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.

But according to Dr Logan, the health infrastructure and access to drugs in the UK means malaria is unlikely to take hold and cause major problems.

Unlike much of the world, the rise of the mosquito will be a nuisance in the UK rather than a serious threat.


A worst of Famine & Drought of the century in the Horn caused by excessive damming & land grabbing in Ethiopia announces regime change

 

 

The  famine in the Horn of Africa used be blame mainly for the drought caused by the global  climate change ignoring the pricipla culprit the  the dictatorial regime.  In the past the same  has brought regime change in country of  hunger Ethiopia two times,  that of the Negus in 1974 and the Derg  Military Junta in 1991. As the French says there is no two without three, we expecting a regime change in the country since all conditions are meeting as those of the last two experiences    due to the starvation in Wello in 1974 and in Tigre in 1984 which cost the lives of millions in the past. The main culprit for this in human repeated catastrophe this day has been mainly given to the extreme weather conditions demonstrated by hurricanes, floods, droughts all over the globe.

 

The current drought conditions have been caused by successive seasons with very low rainfall due to wanton construction of the dams all over Ethiopia by the dictatorial regime of Melese Zenawie. Over the past decade the Horn of Africa has experienced consecutive failed rainy seasons having direct co-correlation in this period of intensification of damming in the region.  According to surveys of local communities, this is part of a long-term shift as seen in Borana communities in Ethiopia report that whereas droughts were recorded every six to eight years in the past, they now occur every one to two years since the construction of dams in Omo and Shebelle rivers.

Today’s rainfall projections are unclear. Most modeling, as reflected in the IPCC’s last assessment, suggests more rain will fall in the east Africa region as a whole, with an increase in “heavy events” (sudden downpours, so more flood risk). However, some recent studies suggest rainfall will decrease, particularly in the long rains. To reverse the trend the regional governments must stop wanton damming and wasteful irrigation likes that of Sudan and Ethiopia. According to IPCC’s last assessment, suggests more rain will fall in the east Africa region as a whole, with an increase in “heavy events” (sudden downpours, so more flood risk). However, some recent studies suggest rainfall will decrease, particularly in the long rains.

 

Since the construction of  the Mega dams in the Southern Ethiopia  the regional meteorological data supported  the argument by demonstrating the increase of the  annual temperatures from 1960-2006 by 1C in Kenya and 1.3C in Ethiopia, and the frequency of hot days is increasing in both countries in the region of the dams. However, more recent research suggests that rainfall decreased in the rainy seasons of March to June.  When it comes to records and data collections like Europe and America climate change could not   be attributed to the Horn of Africa’s drought, since t the current drought is directly climate change. True, there are now a few cases in which scientists have been able to estimate the extent to which man-made climate change has made a particular extreme weather event more likely, but these exercises require reliable long-term weather data that only exists for Europe and North America – no such studies as yet exist in the case of the current drought.

What about the future? Globally, climate change modeling projects an increase in the frequency and severity of extreme weather events like droughts and floods. In the absence of urgent action to slash global greenhouse gas emissions, temperatures in the region will probably increase by 3C-4C by 2080-99 relative to 1980-99. The combination of higher temperatures and more unpredictable rains is alarming for food production. In a   recent estimate horn of Africa could suffer a decline in the length of the growing period for key crops of up to 20% by the end of the century, with the productivity of beans falling by nearly 50% if the dictatorial regimes continue letting land grabbing and disfranchising the local family hold farmers and pastoralist for the sake of this international speculators.  More over, the dam is prepared for these grabbed lands irrigation for an eventual cash crop cultivation of exportation.

According Nobel prize-winning economist Amartya Sen that drought is caused by lack of rainfall, famine is man-made, and thus famines do not occur in functioning democracies.

 

 

UN body Calls the Ethiopian Megalomaniac to suspend his “Death Dam” of famine & drought Prof. Muse Tegegne

The  World Heritage Committee heard our over  two years old appeal  to  stop the Ethiopian Dictator  and the anti environmentalist  three gorge dam    Chinese financiers to  suspend the death dam called Gebe III; which eventually will eliminate  the Omotic people by  drying the naturally reserved world heritage Lake Turkana. We hopping the same august body will do to stop the other death dam on the Nile River known as “Millennium Dam which eventually dries the Nile and Lake Tana with unpredicted catastrophic result on the population of the region from Blue Nile down to Egypt. The recent famine and drought is the direct consequence of the these death dams :- Gebe I. II, III & that of the dam on the Shebelle river the only live water source for all the inhabitants of Southern Somalia. Wabe-Shebelle Death Dam is located 785 km South-East of Addis. the deadly dam he project has 2238.19 Mm 3 live storage between 580m and 535.41m, with a  power system of  111 m high. This is the main dam responsible for the drought in the Shebelle Juba region of Somalia by controlling the annual floods in a region the annual rain fall is not sufficient. Today from such dam with that of the Om or river dams the region is highly affected by unprecedented drought. The Ethiopian dictator is fully responsible to this in human act of eliminating million of inhabitants in the region. Unless he is stopped immediately he will transform   the whole region into a desert. Lake Turkana in Northern Kenya is the world’s largest desert Lake which would   eventually dry up like that of the Gobi Lake in Asia which has now ceased to exist.   This unique ecosystem has made it an outstanding living open laboratory for the study of plant and animal communities according to World heritage. The Lakes’   rich fossil finds that have allowed reconstructing the history of animal species and mankind over the past 2 million years will cease to exist by the Ethiopian water dictator Melese Zenawie.  Lake Turkana due to its unique properties in 1997 was recognized and protected as a World Heritage Site. It blood line the Omo river the home of Lucy and Ardi also pouring   this  menaced Lake over 90% of its life giving water source. The creation of dams on Omo rivers have recently accelerated the desertification by  causing unprecedented drought which caused the destruction of  over 10 million people in downstream  Kenya and the damming the Shebelle river damaged the Shebelle river farmers of Somalia. This was confirmed by the recent study study commissioned by the African Development Bank that the dam would likely cause a significant drop in the lake’s water level, increase its salinity, and threaten the unique ecosystem for which the lake was recognized as a World Heritage Site in the first place. According to the international waters the Gibe III Dam is being built by an Italian company. ICBC, a Chinese state-owned bank, has approved funding for the project, and China’s export credit agency is financing the transmission lines. The dam would not only have devastating impacts on the Omo River and Lake Turkana, but also on the 500,000 indigenous people who depend on the river and lake for their livelihoods. The  World Heritage Committee, which oversees the protection of World Heritage Sites around the globe, in its  annual meeting heard our cry  and  decided to take action for the protection of Lake Turkana.  The two  culprit  country Ethiopia and China   being two of the 21 members  of the  organization   did stop the august body to take  the following decisive  motions against their proactive corrupting  lobbies   :-

  • It expressed their “utmost concern” about the proposed construction of the Gibe III Dam and urged the Ethiopian government to “immediately halt all construction” on the project.
  • It asked the governments of Kenya and Ethiopia to invite a monitoring mission to review the dam’s impacts on Lake Turkana,
  • It demanded the financial institutions “to put on hold their financial support” until the Committee’s next annual meeting in June

The following are the world Heritage in Ethiopia but still we have a lot of world hertage in my an place in Ehtiopia in the islands of Lake Tana which are not yet explored. Thus Lower Valley of the Omo where the dictator is constructing his mega dams are reserved areas.

Ethiopia

  • Simien National Park
  • Rock-Hewn Churches, Lalibela
  • Fasil Ghebbi, Gondar Region
  • Aksum
  • Lower Valley of the Awash
  • Lower Valley of the Omo
  • Tiya
  • Harar Jugol, the Fortified Historic Town
  • Konso Cultural Landscape

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2rrBHXQAb6k&feature=player_detailpage http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JIGehMOdlms&feature=player_detailpage http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=48NBDKhqNVg&feature=player_detailpage http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T-21Rbju3Ck&feature=player_detailpage   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q2zkALwmHW8&feature=player_detailpage http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eDm3JSa9zoY Related

Ethiopia’s rush to build mega dams sparks protests | World news 

UN Body Calls for Suspension of Gibe III Dam to Protect World Heritage

Eritrea, Addis Ababa’s dictator Searching UN mandated overthrow of the regime; and our Solution for Somalia Prof. Muse Tegegne

 

The UN Security Council based on the   resolutions 751 (1992) and 1907 (2009) concerning Somalia and Eritrea brought out an allegations which eventually strengthens  the regime in Addis search of regime change in Asmara.

U.N. Monitoring Group report on Somalia and Eritrea said the Red Sea state’s intelligence personnel were active in Uganda, South Sudan, Kenya and Somalia, and that the country’s actions posed a threat to security and peace in the region. The allegation pursued word by word the accusation of   the belligerent Melese  Zendawie regime -“The plan was to attack the AU headquarters with a car bomb as African leaders took breaks, to blow up Africa’s largest market to “kill many people” and attack the area between the Prime Minister’s office and the Sheraton Hotel — where most heads of state stay during AU summits.”

The U.N. report also endorsed the Ethiopian regime terms saying ” Omar is an OLF member who was approached by the Eritrean security services though Colonel Gemachew. Omar, who visited Eritrea in 2009 and 2010, became the Addis team leader for the plot.”

The U.N. report included a letter from Romania confirming a sniper rifle found in the possession of one of the bomb plotters had been sold to Eritrea in 2004.

The report included slips showing payments to the plotters in Addis Ababa through money transfers. The plotters told the U.N. that an Eritrean colonel had arranged for the transfers via intermediaries in Sudan and Kenya.

Ethiopia routinely accuses Asmara of supporting rebel groups. In a shift of policy, Prime Minister Meles Zenawi declared in April it would support Eritrean guerrillas fighting to overthrow President Isaias Afewerki. However, Melese Zenawie   these days  seems  too look for  the UN mandated overthrow overthrow of the regime in Asmara. Since the most  aclaimed proxy wars seem not working any more.

 

The report also included copies of payments slips from Eritrean officials in Kenya’s capital Nairobi to known members of Somali rebel group al Shabaab. It said the payments were to the tune of $80,000 a month.

“The Monitoring Group has obtained documentary evidence of Eritrean payments to a number of individuals with links to al Shabaab,” the report said.

“The documents obtained were received directly from the embassy of Eritrea in Nairobi, including payment vouchers marked ‘State of Eritrea’,” the report said.

“The embassy of Eritrea in Nairobi continues to maintain and exploit a wide network of Somali contacts, intelligence assets and agents of influence in Kenya.”

 

The Eritrean government Ministry of Information immediately rejected this allegation as the fabrication of the Ethiopian regime.  The full report – all 417 pages are all the previous reports which are packed with fascinating detail about the inner workings of Somali piracy, the origins of illegal arms flows and the structure of al-Shabaab, Somalia’s Islamist insurgency.

The following are the principal points:-

On the Transitional government:-

The UN-backed Transitional Federal Government is ineffective, divided, and corrupt and its leadership lacks vision so is incapable of providing leadership or bringing stability.

On African Union AMICOM soldiers arm deals:-

Arms supplied to the African Union troops and government forces in Mogadishu are sold openly in the al-Shabaab controlled Bakara Market;

No Eritrea

Eritrea planned a series of bomb attacks targeting an African Union summit in January the capital of Ethiopia, its old enemy that would “make Addis Ababa like Baghdad

On Al- Shabaab:-

The group earns up to $100-million a year from taxation and extortion, as a business operation of revenue

On Punt land based   Private security companies:-

Saracen International committed “egregious violations of the arms embargo” by setting up a military training camp and deploying foreign security personnel in the semi-autonomous region of Punt land.

The allegation also accused the company having links to Xe Services, formerly known as Blackwater.

Our  element of solution in  Horn of  African  Conflict:-

The only lasting solution for the conflict of the horn of Africa’s wanton conflict is to find a definitive peace between Addis and Asmara based on the retreat of all foreign forces from Somalia. The conflict in Somali is manipulated by the Melese Zenawie for two main reasons – to keep himself  in power proving as peace keeper in the horn of Africa to fighting Al-Qaida, and secondly a battle ground for incrimination of his enemy the regime in Asmara. And finally  let the regional governments of Somalia to handle the  conflict by empowering them- that of Somaliland  & Puntland  to deal with  Mogadishu and South Shebele regions.

 

 

Security Council Committee pursuant to resolutions 751 (1992) and 1907 (2009) concerning Somalia
and Eritrea

REPORTS OF THE PANEL OF EXPERTS AND THE MONITORING GROUP ON SOMALIA AS WELL AS THE MONITORING GROUP ON SOMALIA AND ERITREA

S/2011/43318 July 2011Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea submitted in accordance with resolution 1916 (2010)
S/2010/9110 March 2010Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia submitted in accordance with resolution 1853 (2008)
S/2008/76910 December 2008Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia submitted in accordance with resolution 1811 (2008)
S/2008/27424 April 2008Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia submitted in accordance with resolution 1766 (2007)
S/2007/43618 July 2007Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia submitted in accordance with resolution 1724 (2006)
S/2006/91322 November 2006Final report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia submitted in accordance with resolution 1676 (2006)
S/2006/2294 May 2006Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia submitted in accordance with resolution 1630 (2005)
S/2005/6254 October 2005Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia submitted in accordance with resolution 1587 (2005)
S/2005/1539 March 2005Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia submitted in accordance with resolution 1558 (2004)
S/2004/60411 August 2004Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia submitted in accordance with resolution 1519 (2003)
S/2003/10354 November 2003Report of the Panel of Experts on Somalia submitted in accordance with resolution 1474 (2003)
S/2003/22325 March 2003Report of the Panel of Experts on Somalia submitted in accordance with resolution 1425 (2002)
S/2002/7223 July 2002Report of the team of experts submitted in accordance with resolution 1407 (2002)

The Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 751 (1992) concerning Somalia was established on 24 April 1992 to oversee the general and complete arms embargo imposed by resolution 733 (1992) and to undertake the tasks set out by the Security Council in paragraph 11 of resolution 751 (1992) and, subsequently, in paragraph 4 of resolution 1356 (2001) and paragraph 11 of resolution 1844 (2008).

 

The Security Council first imposed a general and complete arms embargo on Somalia on 23 January 1992 with the adoption of resolution 733. Certain exceptions to the arms embargo were adopted by the Council in its resolutions 1356 (2001)1725 (2006) in paragraph 6 of resolution 1744 (2007), and reiterated in paragraphs 11and 12 of resolution 1772 (2007). Additional exemptions were authorized by the Security Council in paragraph 12 of resolution 1846 (2008) and 11 of resolution 1851 (2008), with respect to efforts to combat piracy off the coast of Somalia.

By its resolution 1844 (2008), the Security Council decided to impose individual targeted sanctions (an arms embargo, including training and financial assistance, on individuals and entities; a travel ban on individuals; and an assets freeze on individuals and entities, as designated by the Committee). The same resolution provides exemptions from the measures and expands the mandate of the Committee.

The sanctions regime is summarized in the table below.

MeasureDescription (unofficial)Exceptions to the measure
Arms Embargo (territorial)

 

 

Arms Embargo (Targeted ban on arms transfers to individuals and entities)

Consolidated List

All States shall immediately implement a general and complete arms embargo on all deliveries of weapons and military equipment to Somalia until the Council decides otherwise.Member States shall take the necessary measures to prevent the direct or indirect supply of weapons, military equipment, technical assistance, training, financial and other assistance, related to military activities, or to the supply of arms, to the individuals or entities designated by the Committee.Set out in paragraphs 2 and 3 of resolution 1356 (2001), in paragraph 6 of resolution 1744 (2007), and reiterated in paragraphs 11and 12 of resolution 1772 (2007), as well as in paragraph 12 of resolution 1846 (2008) and paragraph 11 of resolution 1851 (2008).
Travel BanConsolidated ListAll States shall take the necessary measures to prevent the entry into or transit through their territories of individuals designated by the CommitteeSet out in paragraph 2 of resolution 1844 (2008)
Assets FreezeConsolidated ListAll States shall freeze without delay funds, other financial assets and economic resources owned or controlled by individuals and entities designated by the CommitteeSet out in paragraph 4 of resolution 1844 (2008)

A Panel of Experts was established by resolution 1425 (2002) to generate information on violations of the arms embargo with a view toward strengthening it. The Panel of Experts was succeeded by a Monitoring Group established pursuant to resolution 1519 (2003) to focus on the ongoing arms embargo violations. The Monitoring Group continues to be in operation and its mandate was most recently extended for a period of 12 months by resolution 1853 (2008), and expanded in light of the new sanctions measures, to carry out the tasks set out in paragraphs 23 (a) to (c) of resolution 1844 (2008). As the Monitoring Group commenced its work in March 2009, its current 12 months mandate will run through the end of March 2010.
View available reports of the Panel of experts and of the Monitoring Group

The current Chairman of the Committee, for the period ending 31 December 2011, is His Excellency Mr. Hardeep Singh Puri (India). The two Vice-Chairs for 2011 are Lebanon and Nigeria. The Committee publishes annual reports of its activities. The Committee has guidelines for the conduct of its work.