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Ethiopia ኢትዮጵያ

The Victory of Adwa against colonization 118th Anniversary

 

The battle of Adwa of  the 1st of March,  1896 a great victory and pride for Africans at home and Diaspora. The victory assured that Ethiopia successfully resists European colonization.

A prehistoric stale in the birth place of Menelik II

Italy the late comer to the scramble for Africa in the late 19th century   was allocated to Ethiopia but just needed to take control. The Italians and the rest of the European powers present at the Berlin Conference 1880’s wrongly assumed that Ethiopia was made up of rival tribes fighting one another and thought it would be a quick promenade for their 20,000 strong highly trained invasion forces. They never thought  what they call “tribal back word sa

vages” could be united raising a much larger patriotic people’s army to defend their country and even to

Map of the Battle of Adowa, between the forces of General Oreste Baratieri, Italian governor of Eritrea and Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia.

win an all out war.

 

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The main cause of the Battle being the European colonial ambition it manifested through the deferent treaty the colonial powers used to cheat the Africans. This was highly manifested by Italo Ethiopian Treaty known as the Wechale Treaty.   The colonial manipulation started when Menelik II came to the throne in 1889 the Italians thought that he would surrender sovereignty to them since they had been supplying him with ammunitions. They succeeded to manipulate the king on  May 2, 1889, to make him  sign  the Treaty  of Uccialli in the province of Wello, with which Menelik accorded for the  Italians some land in Tigre to the already concession he has made by letting them to take Eritrea. In this famous once sided treaty, they   tricked Menelik by having two different versions- one in Italian and other in Amharic. The secret of the Italian plan was manifested on   article 17 which read in one in Amharic and other in Italian.   Thus the Italian version read: –

The Emperor consents to use the Italian government for all the business he does with all the other Powers or Governments“.
The Amharic version reads:-
The Emperor has the option to communicate with the help of the Italian government for all matters that he wants with the kings of Europe.”

——————

When Menelik realized that he had been cheated he immediately rejected the treaty and refused all further offers of gifts from the Italians. Turkey, Russia and France stood to the Ethiopian version of the story.  Finally Menelik decided to confront the advancing Italian Army which has already occupied Tigre Provence without his contentment.

As a result in September of 1895, Menelik, King of Kings of Ethiopia mobilized the population of Ethiopia to arms. Over 100,000 Ethiopians gathered under his rank to liberate his occupy province by the Italian forces.

 

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“God, in his bounty, has struck down my enemies and enlarged my empire and preserved me to this day. I have reigned by the grace of God….Enemies have come who would ruin our country and change our religion. They have passed beyond the sea which God gave us as our frontier….These enemies have advanced, burrowing into the country like moles. With God’s help I will get rid of them.”

Menelik divided his Army under three leaders:-

  1. Emperor Menelik II, The King of Kings of Ethiopia
  2. Empress Taytu Betul, The Wife of Menlik II
  3. Negus Tekle Haymanot Tessemma ,
  4. Ras Welle Betul ;
  5. RasMengesha Atikem ;
  6. Ras Mengesha Yohannes ;
  7. Ras Alula Engida ;
  8. Ras Mikael of Wollo;
  9. Ras Makonnen Wolde Mikael;
  10. FitawrariGebeyyehu,

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On the night of 29 February and the early morning of 1 March three Italian brigades advanced separately towards Adwa over narrow mountain tracks, while a fourth remained camped.  The Italiano Forces were led by:-

  1. General Oreste Baratieri ;
  2. Brgdaire Matteo Albertone,
  3. Giuseppe Arimondi,
  4. Giuseppe Ellena  and
  5. Vittorio Dabormida.
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These invading Italian forces were made up of 18,000 infantry and 56 artillery guns, and with many thousands of   Eritrean militias were prepared to fight against Menelik II on the battle field.

At 6:00 on the 1st of March 1896 the Italian Gen.  Albertone used the Eritrean askari peasant fighters to face their brother Ethiopian as is always the game to make the enemy to kill one another at a place called Kidane Meret. This was the hill where the Ethiopians had managed to set up their mountain out front.  On the hill side though outnumbered by the Eritrean askaris, the Ethiopian fighters were able to hold their position for two hours which they broke the rank of the Italians and able to capture General Albertone’s.  At such heroic fight the Italian and their remaining askaris dispersed leaving the wounded and the dead.  Seeing the capture of the Albertone Gen  Arimondi’s brigade joined the fight at the last minute and start punching the Ethiopians to liberate the captured Italians. The Ethiopians fought courageously  and battled the colonizers three  hours while Menelik himself joined the combat with his  25,000 strong  Shewans people’s army and  broke their back bones once for good. Brigadier Dabormida now made a fatal error as he retreated from Menelik’s push, he was cornered  into a narrow hill where he  was ransacked  by Ras Mikael ‘s Oromo Army . They wiped him  out, his body was never recovered. The last blow came at noon the next day   when Negus Tekle Haymonot led his  Gojjam forces  break the back bone of  the remaining  Italian brigade.  This happened when Negus  was attacked by the last of the invading army which he  destroyed and by one o’clock the battle was finished with victory to the African Army.

The battle was bloody over 8,000 Italians died and 1500 wounded many captured fighting hard to save the pride of European colonizers, but  with no avail. Almost the same amount of Ethiopians perished in this decisive war of history in the African heartland after the war of the Zulu in South Africa  and Mhadist victory against the Britons in Khartoum led by Mahadi.

“In Ethiopia, the military genius of Menelik II was in the best tradition of Piankhi, the great ruler of ancient Egypt and Nubia or ancient Ethiopia, who drove out the Italians in 1896 and maintained the liberties of that ancient free empire of Black men.” Huggins and Jackson analyzed the victory not only in terms of its significance to the postcolonial African world, but also in terms of its linkage to the tradition of ancient African glories and victories.  An Introduction to African Civilizations, Huggins and Jackson write

 

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10 things that make Ethiopia extraordinary and 10 things that makes Ethiopia Extraordinarily sad !

Fairy tale castles, superb coffee and the Ark of the Covenant (OK, possibly) are just some of the unexpected attractions of this African country

By Oliver Robinson, for CNN 20 July, 2013Ethiopian vista

Freebies on an Ethiopian road trip: the extraordinary views around every corner.

What sets Ethiopia apart from its African neighbors?

The excellent coffee?

The fact that it was never colonized?

Or that Rastafarians regard it as their spiritual home?

Or could it be the smooth, well-maintained roads, so rare on the continent, that make exploring the country by car such a joy?

After a 1,430-kilometer drive through Ethiopia’s Northern Circuit — up mountains, through Martian-like landscapes, into lost kingdoms of yore — we found 10 crucial things that define the country.

1. The best Italian restaurant in the world (according to Bob Geldof, anyway)

The buzzing bedlam of Mahatma Gandhi Street in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia’s capital, is the setting for Castelli’s — arguably the best Italian restaurant this side of Bologna.

An Italian soldier, Francesco Castelli, founded the modest-looking eatery at the end of WWII. Since then it’s gained a global profile thanks to endorsement from celebrity diners such as Bob Geldof, Bono and Brad and Angelina.

But, high-profile praise aside, it’s the food that makes Castelli’s worth a visit before setting off from Addis into the Ethiopian wilds.

Ristorante Castelli, Mahatma Gandhi Street, Addis Ababa; +251 1 563 580, +251 1 571 757

2. Italian-style coffee

Like great Italian food, coffee is one of the legacies of the Italian occupation of Ethiopia during WWII.

While Mussolini’s men proved inept colonists (the Allies defeated them in 1943), their tenure in the country did at least ensure that an Italian-style espresso machine was installed in most cafes, restaurants and — weary travelers will be pleased to know — even dilapidated roadside shacks.

Ethiopians love their coffee and take pride in the fact that the plant’s invigorating effects were first discovered in the Oromia region of the country (see the 2006 documentary Black Gold).

3. Chinese roads

Ethiopian roadMade in China. Actually made by China. The country is investing hundreds of millions of dollars in Ethiopia’s infrastructure.Aside from coffee and pasta, Ethiopia excels in roads.

Other African nations have roads — it’s just that few are a patch with those in Ethiopia.

The quality tarmac comes courtesy of huge Chinese investment — in 2009, it was estimated that China had poured $900 million into Ethiopia’s infrastructure, a figure that’s since increased exponentially.

Anyone who’s driven into Ethiopia from Kenya, via the perilous Marsabit route (fraught with bumps, brigands and bandits) will attest what a difference a nice road makes.

Ethiopia’s incredible mountain-top highway vistas don’t hurt, either.

Zanzibar: A very cultural beach holiday

4. Tanks … lots of them

Ethiopia tankSwords into ploughshares … or tanks into unusual climbing frames for kids, in the case of Ethiopia.Don’t worry: unless you get horribly lost and venture into Somalia, the tanks you’ll see along the roadside are burned-out remnants of the Eritrean-Ethiopian War (1998-2000).

Seen throughout the country, these defunct war machines stand as forbidding reminders of Ethiopia’s troubled past — and double as fun climbing frames for local children. (Next door Eritrea is the place to see if you really dig disused materiel.)

5. Underground churches

LalibelaLalibela’s monolithic churches still impress nine centuries later.Ethiopia sags under the weight of its cultural treasures, such as those at the UNESCO World Heritage site Lalibela.

In the late 12th century, Gebre Mesqel Lalibela had 13 churches — Ethiopia is one of the oldest Christian nations — carved out of solid rock.

His achievement (meaning that of his stonemasons and slaves) is still incredibly impressive nine centuries on.

Lalibela — the first major point of interest on the Northern Circuit — is a 10-hour journey from Addis Ababa.

Head north up Route 1, passing through Debre Birhan, Kombolcha and Dessie. At Weldiya, leave the highway and follow the road west to Gashena.

At Gashena, take the road north to Lalibela.

6. Martian landscapes

Danakil Depression“The cruelest place on Earth?” Pretty, though.Located in the tumultuous Afar region on the Eritrean border, the Danakil Depression is strewn with volcanoes and salt lakes and is one of the hottest places on the planet.

So why visit what National Geographic calls “the cruelest place on Earth?”

Well, this also happens to be one of the most arresting natural sights you’ll see in Africa — or anywhere else.

With an unforgiving landscape that’s difficult to navigate, it’s also one of the few places in Ethiopia where you shouldn’t travel alone: most people go with an escort or in a convoy.

Tours can be arranged in Abbis. Reputable agency Ethiopia Travel and Tours (info@ethiotravelandtours.com) charges around $550 for a four-day trip.

7. Men-only monasteries

Debre DamoDebre Damo houses some of the most ancient Christian scripture in Africa. Gentlemen: you’ll have to describe it to the ladies.Just off the main road between Lalibela and Aksum lies Debre Damo, a monastery that can be reached only by scrambling up a 15-meter-high cliff face.

There is, however, a discriminatory door policy: only men are permitted to make the perilous ascent to the monastery.

That rule doesn’t apply just to female humans — even livestock of the fairer sex apparently risk distracting the monks from holy contemplation.

Gents who brave the climb can enjoy stunning vistas, as well as a chance to eye some of the most ancient Christian scripture in Africa.

Be warned that unofficial “guides” will try to extort inflated fees for their services before letting you back down the cliff — negotiate the charge beforehand.

It’s practical to visit Debre Damo en route to Aksum.

The monastery lies just outside the small town of Bizet, 12 hours’ drive north of Addis and about 50 kilometers west of Adigrat, the last stop on Route 1 before turning west on to Route 15.

Follow the road to Bizet and keep a keen eye out for the turn to Debre Damo on the right.

25 of Africa’s best beaches

8. The Ark of the Covenant

AksumFinal resting place of the Ark of the Covenant? Nice if you could get past the tracksuit guys and see it.The Lost Ark? In Ethiopia?

Someone should have told Indiana Jones that before he set off for Cairo.

According to enthusiastic local sources, the historic town ofAksum — focal point of the Aksumite Empire (AD 100-940) — is the resting place of the Ark of the Covenant.

The catch? No one’s actually allowed to see it.

The closest you can get is by paying a few dollars to one of the tracksuit-clad men posturing as guards outside the temple where the ark is purportedly kept.

Luckily, Aksum is home to plenty of ancient tombs and other monuments, which makes the drive to one of Ethiopia’s northernmost towns worthwhile — ark or not.

Though Aksum can be reached by a small road west of Mek’ele, people wanting to visit Debre Damo monastery as well should take Route 1, turning west on to Route 15 at Adigrat, and join Route 3 at Adwa.

9. Roadside Rastafarians

Rasta child, EthiopiaRastafarian kids in Ethiopia, regarded as the movement’s spiritual home.The Rastafari movement is most often associated with Jamaica, but it was the Ethiopian Haile Selassie who inspired the religion.

Ethiopians are proud of their former ruler’s supposed status as Jesus incarnate and some have adopted the dress and lifestyle habits of their Jamaican counterparts — which makes meeting them in the Simien Mountains all the more bizarre.

The roadside Rastas you’re likely to meet are a friendly bunch, who’ll happily talk you through points of interest in the area (often relating to high cliffs off which Italian soldiers were thrown), as well as hawking red, green and yellow hats and accessories.

10. A fairy tale kingdom

Ethiopian castleEthiopian fairy tale: an imperial castle in Gondar.British and Dutch colonial buildings attract the most architectural attention in east Africa, but Ethiopia again stands out as the only country on the continent with its own fairy tale castles.

Aside from a few eye-catching art deco buildings left over from the Italian occupation, the castles of Fasilides, Iyasu and Mentwab, in the former imperial capital of Gondar, are the structures that stay in the mind.

Gondar is a five-hour drive southwest of Aksum. Follow Route 3 through the Simien Mountains.

A good stopping point is Debark, with its mountain vistas.

What defines Ethiopia to you? Let us know in the comments section.

 

Leave a message…
  • Avatar
    Prof. Muse Tegegne • a few seconds ago

    My 10 Extraordinarily sad  things about Ethiopia :-

    1. Dictatorial Regime,

    2. Land Grabbing while the people are starving,

    3. No Free Press,

    4. All journalists in prison,

    5. No Free & Fare Election,

    6. All land is nationalized like soviet era,

    7. Most of the educated elites are in exile,

    8. Young girls are sold as slaves to the middle East and tortured,

    9. one party system,

    10. All rivers are unnaturally dammed..

  • Avatar
    Alex Tessema • 6 hours ago

    Good presentation of Ethiopia except some of them are not described well. There are a lot of stuffs to talk about the country. It is one of the oldest and beautiful country in Africa with its own unique tradition, nice culture and old history. You could at least mention about that it is the origin of man kind, for eg. you could mention about Lucy. The people’s beauties, specially the ladies beauty, could be mentioned too. You used wrong picture of the roads to describe what chines did. You could show other modern ring roads, bridges and highways to present the correct pictures of the roads. you could state more about Lalibela, Axum, Gonder, or how the economy is changing now etc The other thing is Ethiopia is the origin of coffee not Italy. So don’t relate Ethiopia’s coffee with Italy except their espresso machines.

    I suggest to the word to explore this beautiful country, because most people don’t know about Ethiopia while the country is rich with many historical, cultural and amazing places in the world which need to be visited. The country is just not rich to show what it has to the world.

    But something is better than nothing. CNN at least tried to show the picture of Ethiopia to the world, even if there are many more! Go CNN!

    Visit Ethiopia and do your own judgement!

10 things that make Ethiopia extraordinary and 10 things that makes Ethiopia Extraordinarily sad !

Fairy tale castles, superb coffee and the Ark of the Covenant (OK, possibly) are just some of the unexpected attractions of this African country

By Oliver Robinson, for CNN 20 July, 2013Ethiopian vista

Freebies on an Ethiopian road trip: the extraordinary views around every corner.

What sets Ethiopia apart from its African neighbors?

The excellent coffee?

The fact that it was never colonized?

Or that Rastafarians regard it as their spiritual home?

Or could it be the smooth, well-maintained roads, so rare on the continent, that make exploring the country by car such a joy?

After a 1,430-kilometer drive through Ethiopia’s Northern Circuit — up mountains, through Martian-like landscapes, into lost kingdoms of yore — we found 10 crucial things that define the country.

1. The best Italian restaurant in the world (according to Bob Geldof, anyway)

The buzzing bedlam of Mahatma Gandhi Street in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia’s capital, is the setting for Castelli’s — arguably the best Italian restaurant this side of Bologna.

An Italian soldier, Francesco Castelli, founded the modest-looking eatery at the end of WWII. Since then it’s gained a global profile thanks to endorsement from celebrity diners such as Bob Geldof, Bono and Brad and Angelina.

But, high-profile praise aside, it’s the food that makes Castelli’s worth a visit before setting off from Addis into the Ethiopian wilds.

Ristorante Castelli, Mahatma Gandhi Street, Addis Ababa; +251 1 563 580, +251 1 571 757

2. Italian-style coffee

Like great Italian food, coffee is one of the legacies of the Italian occupation of Ethiopia during WWII.

While Mussolini’s men proved inept colonists (the Allies defeated them in 1943), their tenure in the country did at least ensure that an Italian-style espresso machine was installed in most cafes, restaurants and — weary travelers will be pleased to know — even dilapidated roadside shacks.

Ethiopians love their coffee and take pride in the fact that the plant’s invigorating effects were first discovered in the Oromia region of the country (see the 2006 documentary Black Gold).

3. Chinese roads

Ethiopian roadMade in China. Actually made by China. The country is investing hundreds of millions of dollars in Ethiopia’s infrastructure.Aside from coffee and pasta, Ethiopia excels in roads.

Other African nations have roads — it’s just that few are a patch with those in Ethiopia.

The quality tarmac comes courtesy of huge Chinese investment — in 2009, it was estimated that China had poured $900 million into Ethiopia’s infrastructure, a figure that’s since increased exponentially.

Anyone who’s driven into Ethiopia from Kenya, via the perilous Marsabit route (fraught with bumps, brigands and bandits) will attest what a difference a nice road makes.

Ethiopia’s incredible mountain-top highway vistas don’t hurt, either.

Zanzibar: A very cultural beach holiday

4. Tanks … lots of them

Ethiopia tankSwords into ploughshares … or tanks into unusual climbing frames for kids, in the case of Ethiopia.Don’t worry: unless you get horribly lost and venture into Somalia, the tanks you’ll see along the roadside are burned-out remnants of the Eritrean-Ethiopian War (1998-2000).

Seen throughout the country, these defunct war machines stand as forbidding reminders of Ethiopia’s troubled past — and double as fun climbing frames for local children. (Next door Eritrea is the place to see if you really dig disused materiel.)

5. Underground churches

LalibelaLalibela’s monolithic churches still impress nine centuries later.Ethiopia sags under the weight of its cultural treasures, such as those at the UNESCO World Heritage site Lalibela.

In the late 12th century, Gebre Mesqel Lalibela had 13 churches — Ethiopia is one of the oldest Christian nations — carved out of solid rock.

His achievement (meaning that of his stonemasons and slaves) is still incredibly impressive nine centuries on.

Lalibela — the first major point of interest on the Northern Circuit — is a 10-hour journey from Addis Ababa.

Head north up Route 1, passing through Debre Birhan, Kombolcha and Dessie. At Weldiya, leave the highway and follow the road west to Gashena.

At Gashena, take the road north to Lalibela.

6. Martian landscapes

Danakil Depression“The cruelest place on Earth?” Pretty, though.Located in the tumultuous Afar region on the Eritrean border, the Danakil Depression is strewn with volcanoes and salt lakes and is one of the hottest places on the planet.

So why visit what National Geographic calls “the cruelest place on Earth?”

Well, this also happens to be one of the most arresting natural sights you’ll see in Africa — or anywhere else.

With an unforgiving landscape that’s difficult to navigate, it’s also one of the few places in Ethiopia where you shouldn’t travel alone: most people go with an escort or in a convoy.

Tours can be arranged in Abbis. Reputable agency Ethiopia Travel and Tours (info@ethiotravelandtours.com) charges around $550 for a four-day trip.

7. Men-only monasteries

Debre DamoDebre Damo houses some of the most ancient Christian scripture in Africa. Gentlemen: you’ll have to describe it to the ladies.Just off the main road between Lalibela and Aksum lies Debre Damo, a monastery that can be reached only by scrambling up a 15-meter-high cliff face.

There is, however, a discriminatory door policy: only men are permitted to make the perilous ascent to the monastery.

That rule doesn’t apply just to female humans — even livestock of the fairer sex apparently risk distracting the monks from holy contemplation.

Gents who brave the climb can enjoy stunning vistas, as well as a chance to eye some of the most ancient Christian scripture in Africa.

Be warned that unofficial “guides” will try to extort inflated fees for their services before letting you back down the cliff — negotiate the charge beforehand.

It’s practical to visit Debre Damo en route to Aksum.

The monastery lies just outside the small town of Bizet, 12 hours’ drive north of Addis and about 50 kilometers west of Adigrat, the last stop on Route 1 before turning west on to Route 15.

Follow the road to Bizet and keep a keen eye out for the turn to Debre Damo on the right.

25 of Africa’s best beaches

8. The Ark of the Covenant

AksumFinal resting place of the Ark of the Covenant? Nice if you could get past the tracksuit guys and see it.The Lost Ark? In Ethiopia?

Someone should have told Indiana Jones that before he set off for Cairo.

According to enthusiastic local sources, the historic town ofAksum — focal point of the Aksumite Empire (AD 100-940) — is the resting place of the Ark of the Covenant.

The catch? No one’s actually allowed to see it.

The closest you can get is by paying a few dollars to one of the tracksuit-clad men posturing as guards outside the temple where the ark is purportedly kept.

Luckily, Aksum is home to plenty of ancient tombs and other monuments, which makes the drive to one of Ethiopia’s northernmost towns worthwhile — ark or not.

Though Aksum can be reached by a small road west of Mek’ele, people wanting to visit Debre Damo monastery as well should take Route 1, turning west on to Route 15 at Adigrat, and join Route 3 at Adwa.

9. Roadside Rastafarians

Rasta child, EthiopiaRastafarian kids in Ethiopia, regarded as the movement’s spiritual home.The Rastafari movement is most often associated with Jamaica, but it was the Ethiopian Haile Selassie who inspired the religion.

Ethiopians are proud of their former ruler’s supposed status as Jesus incarnate and some have adopted the dress and lifestyle habits of their Jamaican counterparts — which makes meeting them in the Simien Mountains all the more bizarre.

The roadside Rastas you’re likely to meet are a friendly bunch, who’ll happily talk you through points of interest in the area (often relating to high cliffs off which Italian soldiers were thrown), as well as hawking red, green and yellow hats and accessories.

10. A fairy tale kingdom

Ethiopian castleEthiopian fairy tale: an imperial castle in Gondar.British and Dutch colonial buildings attract the most architectural attention in east Africa, but Ethiopia again stands out as the only country on the continent with its own fairy tale castles.

Aside from a few eye-catching art deco buildings left over from the Italian occupation, the castles of Fasilides, Iyasu and Mentwab, in the former imperial capital of Gondar, are the structures that stay in the mind.

Gondar is a five-hour drive southwest of Aksum. Follow Route 3 through the Simien Mountains.

A good stopping point is Debark, with its mountain vistas.

What defines Ethiopia to you? Let us know in the comments section.

 

Leave a message…
  • Avatar
    Prof. Muse Tegegne • a few seconds ago

    My 10 Extraordinarily sad  things about Ethiopia :-

    1. Dictatorial Regime,

    2. Land Grabbing while the people are starving,

    3. No Free Press,

    4. All journalists in prison,

    5. No Free & Fare Election,

    6. All land is nationalized like soviet era,

    7. Most of the educated elites are in exile,

    8. Young girls are sold as slaves to the middle East and tortured,

    9. one party system,

    10. All rivers are unnaturally dammed..

  • Avatar
    Alex Tessema • 6 hours ago

    Good presentation of Ethiopia except some of them are not described well. There are a lot of stuffs to talk about the country. It is one of the oldest and beautiful country in Africa with its own unique tradition, nice culture and old history. You could at least mention about that it is the origin of man kind, for eg. you could mention about Lucy. The people’s beauties, specially the ladies beauty, could be mentioned too. You used wrong picture of the roads to describe what chines did. You could show other modern ring roads, bridges and highways to present the correct pictures of the roads. you could state more about Lalibela, Axum, Gonder, or how the economy is changing now etc The other thing is Ethiopia is the origin of coffee not Italy. So don’t relate Ethiopia’s coffee with Italy except their espresso machines.

    I suggest to the word to explore this beautiful country, because most people don’t know about Ethiopia while the country is rich with many historical, cultural and amazing places in the world which need to be visited. The country is just not rich to show what it has to the world.

    But something is better than nothing. CNN at least tried to show the picture of Ethiopia to the world, even if there are many more! Go CNN!

    Visit Ethiopia and do your own judgement!

70th anniversary end of Fascist Occupation, 20th year of dictatorial rule in Ethiopia

[stream provider=youtube flv=http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3DQmcNFjEzZog%26feature%3Dplayer_detailpage img=x:/img.youtube.com/vi/QmcNFjEzZog/0.jpg embed=false share=false width=440 height=360 dock=true controlbar=bottom bandwidth=high autostart=false /]

It has passed seven decades since Ethiopia was liberated from fascist occupation and mourns  2 decades of dictatorial regime which divide the country according to cartography. The new Ethiopian  dictator  passed this great day like nothing happen and unordinary day in the lives of the Ethiopians.

Italian dictator Benito Mussolini had long held a desire for a new Italian Empire. Reminiscent of the Roman Empire, Mussolini’s new empire was to rule over the Mediterranean and North Africa. His new empire would also avenge past Italian defeats. Chief among these defeats was the Battle of Adowa which took place in Ethiopia on March 1, 1896. Mussolini promised the Italian people “a place in the sun”, matching the extensive colonial empires of the United Kingdom and France.

Today Ethiopia is ruled by a home made dictator with a megalomaniac sprit not far from his oracle  Bhutto Mussolini. This new dictator of the 21st century is dreaming to build dams and in human construction in the image of  Stalin.  Different to Mussolini who likes to possess Ethiopia Melese Zenawie has sold the most fertile land of the country to the foreign grabbers while his people are dying from hunger and starvation.

Meyazia 27 Square (Arat Kilo) May 5, 1941

For Mussolini Ethiopia was a prime candidate of this expansionist goal for several reasons. Following the Scramble for Africa by the European imperialists it was one of the few remaining independent African nations, and it would serve to unify the Italian-held Eritrea to the northwest and Italian Somaliland to the east. It was considered to be militarily weak, and rich in resources. But for Melese Zenawi Ethiopia is a country to be Balkanized to many ethnical states.

————

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———-

Italy was able to launch their invasion without interference primarily due to the United Kingdom and France placing a high priority on retaining Italy as an ally in case hostilities broke out with Germany. To this end, on January 7, 1935, France signed an agreement with Italy giving them essentially a free hand in Africa to secure Italian co-operation. Next, in April, Italy was further emboldened by being a member of the Stresa Front, an agreement to try and control German expansionism.In June, non-interference was further assured by a political rift that had developed between the United Kingdom and France following the Anglo-German Naval Agreement.

The Italo–Ethiopian Treaty of 1928 that delimited the border between Italian Somaliland and Ethiopia stated the border was 21 leagues parallel to the Benadircoast. Acting on this, they built a fort at the Walwal oasis (Italian Ual-Ual) in the Ogaden desert in 1930 and garrisoned it with Somalidubats (irregular frontier troops commanded by Italian officers).

In November of 1934, Ethiopian territorial troops escorting the Anglo-Ethiopian boundary commission, protested Italy’s incursion. TheBritish members of the commission soon withdrew to avoid an international incident but Italian and Ethiopian troops remained encamped in close proximity. In early December, the tensions mounted to a clash that left 150 Ethiopians and 50 Italians dead. This resulted in the Abyssinia Crisis at the League of Nations.

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The League of Nations exonerated both parties for the Walwal incident in September 1935. Italy soon began to build its forces on the borders of Ethiopia in Eritrea and Italian Somaliland.

With an attack appearing inevitable, the Emperor Haile Selassie ordered a general mobilization. His new recruits consisted of around 500,000 men, many of whom were armed with nothing more than spears and bows. Other soldiers carried more modern weapons, including rifles, but many of these were from before 1900 and were badly outdated.

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According to Italian estimates, on the eve of hostilities the Ethiopians had an army of 350,000 men. Only about one-quarter of this army had any kind of military training and the men were armed with rifles of every type and in every kind of condition.

In general, the Ethiopian armies were poorly equipped. They had about 200 antiquated pieces of artillery mounted on rigid gun carriages. There were also about 50 light and heavy anti-aircraft guns (20 mm Oerlikons, 75 mm Schneiders, and Vickers). The Ethiopians even had some Ford truck-based armored cars and a small number of Fiat 3000 World War I-era tanks.

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The service-able portion of the Ethiopian air force included three tiny and outmoded biplanes.

The best Ethiopian units were Haile Selassie’s “Imperial Guard.” These troops were well-trained and better equipped than the other Ethiopian troops. But the Imperial Guard wore a distinctive greenish-khaki uniform of the Belgian army which stood out from the white cotton cloak (shamma) worn by most Ethiopian fighters, and proved to be an excellent target.

In April 1935, the Italian build-up in East Africa started in earnest. In a few months, five regular army divisions and five Blackshirtdivisions arrived in Eritrea. One regular division and a few Blackshirt battalions arrived in Italian Somaliland. These units alone, which did not include Italian units already in East Africa, native units, or units arriving during the war, represented 7,000 officers and 200,000 men.

The equipment for the build-up alone included 6,000 machine guns, 700 pieces of artillery, 150 tankettes, and 150 aircraft.

On October 3, 1935, Marshal Emilio De Bono advanced into Ethiopia from Eritrea without declaration of War. De Bono had a force of 100,000 Italian soldiers and 25,000 Eritrean soldiers under his command. A smaller force, under the command of General Rodolfo Graziani, advanced into Ethiopia from Italian Somaliland.

By October 6, Adwa was captured by De Bono’s forces. Adowa was the site of Italian defeat in the First Italo–Ethiopian War (1895-1896). By October 15, De Bono’s forces moved on to capture the holy capital of Axum. The invading Italians looted the Obelisk of Axum after capturing the city.

On October 7, the League of Nations declared Italy the aggressor and started the slow process of imposing sanctions. These did not extend to several vital materials, such as oil. The British and French argued that if they refused to sell oil to the Italians, they would then simply get it from the United States, which was not a member of the League (the British and French wanted to keep Mussolini on side in the event of war with Germany, which by 1935 was looking like a distinct possibility). In an effort to find compromise, the Hoare-Laval Plan was drafted (which essentially handed 3/5ths of Ethiopia to the Italians without Ethiopia’s consent on the condition the war ended immediately), but when news of the deal was leaked public outrage was such that the British and French governments were forced to wash their hands of the whole affair.

By mid-December, De Bono was replaced by General Pietro Badoglio because of the slow, cautious nature of his advance. Haile Sellassie decided to test this new general with an attack, but his forces were repelled due to the Italians’ superiority in heavy weapons like machine guns and artillery.

On January 20, 1936, the Italians resumed their northern offensive at the First Battle of Tembien between the Warieu Pass andMek’ele. The fighting proved inconclusive and ended in a draw on January 24.

Following the capture of Amba Aradam (Battle of Enderta) on 15 February, the Italians advanced again on the northern front, commencing the Second Battle of Tembien on 27 February. This resulted in an Italian victory and the fall of Worq Amba.

At the Battle of Maych’ew on 31 March 1936, the Italians defeated a counteroffensive by the main Ethiopian army, including the Imperial Guard, under Haile Selassie.

During the final months of 1935 the Italian had also advanced from the south through the Ogaden Desert from Somalia. There were clashes on the River Dewa (30 October), Hamaniei (11 November) and Lama Scillindi (25 November). On 31 December the Italians occupied Denan.

Between January 12 and January 16, 1936, the Italians defeated the southermost Ethiopian army in the Battle of Genale Wenz. After a February lull, the Italians began a major thrust towards the city of Harar. On March 29, Graziani’s forces firebombed and subsequently captured the city. Two days later, the Italians won the last major battle of the war, the Battle of Maychew. Haile Selassie fled into exile on May 2, and Badoglio’s forces took the capital, Addis Ababa, on May 5, 1936.

Italy annexed the country on May 7, and the Italian king, Victor Emmanuel III, was proclaimed emperor on May 9. Italy merged Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somaliland into a single state known as Italian East Africa.

In addition to conventional weaponry, Badoglio’s troops also made substantial use of mustard gas, in both artillery and aerial bombardments. In total, the Italians deployed between 300 and 500 tonnes of mustard gas during the war, despite having signed the1925 Geneva Protocol. The deployment of gas was not restricted to the battlefield, however, as civilians were also targeted by the Italians, as part of their attempt to terrorise the local population. Furthermore, the Italians carried out gas attacks on Red Cross camps and ambulances.[15]

The armed forces disposed of a vast arsenal of grenades and bombs loaded with mustard gas which were dropped from airplanes. This substance was also sprayed directly from above like an “insecticide” onto enemy combatants and villages. It was Mussolini himself who authorized the use of the weapons:

“Rome, 27 October ’35. A.S.E. Graziani. The use of gas as an ultima ratio to overwhelm enemy resistance and in case of counterattack is authorized. Mussolini.”

“Rome, 28 December ’35. A.S.E. Badoglio. Given the enemy system I have authorized V.E. the use even on a vast scale of any gas and flamethrowers. Mussolini.”

Mussolini and his generals sought to cloak the operations of chemical warfare in the utmost secrecy, but the use of gas was revealed to the world through the denunciations of the International Red Cross and of many foreign observers. The Italian reaction to these revelations consisted in the “erroneous” bombardment (at least 19 times) of Red Cross tents posted in the areas of military encampment of the Ethiopian resistance. The orders imparted by Mussolini, with respect to the Ethiopian population, were very clear:[16]

“Rome, 5 June 1936. A.S.E. Graziani. All rebels taken prisoner must be killed. Mussolini.”

“Rome, 8 July 1936. A.S.E. Graziani. I have authorized once again V.E. to begin and systematically conduct a politics of terror and extermination of the rebels and the complicit population. Without the lex talionis one cannot cure the infection in time. Await confirmation. Mussolini.”

The predominant part of the work of repression was carried out by Italians who, besides the bombs laced with mustard gas, instituted forced labor camps, installed public gallows, killed hostages, and mutilated the corpses of their enemies. Graziani ordered the elimination of captured guerrillas by way of throwing them out of airplanes in mid-flight. Many Italian troops had themselves photographed next to cadavers hanging from the gallows or hanging around chests full of detached heads.

One episode in the Italian occupation of Ethiopia was the slaughter of Addis Ababa of February 1937 which followed upon an attempt to assassinate Graziani. In the course of an official ceremony a bomb exploded next to the general. The response was immediate and cruel, as he said “Avenge me! Kill them all!”. The Black Shirts of the Fascist Militia fired randomly into the Ethiopians present at the ceremony killing large numbers, and immediately after poured out into the streets of Addis Ababa where they killed the Ethiopian civilians that they encountered. They also set fire to homes and organized the mass executions of a large groups of people.[17] The massacre claimed lives of 30,000 Ethiopians.

When victory was announced on 9 May 1936 from the balcony of Palazzo Venezia, the Italian population (who had not been informed of the use of mustard gas by their troops) was jubilant.

On 30 June 1936, Emperor Haile Selassie gave a stirring speech before the League of Nations denouncing Italy’s actions and criticizing the world community for standing by. He warned that “It is us today. It will be you tomorrow”. As a result of the League’s condemnation of Italy, Mussolini declared the country’s withdrawal from the organization.

The Italian Empire was officially recognized by the Empire of Japan on November 18, 1936.[18]

The occupation was marked by recurring guerrilla campaigns against the Italians, and reprisals which included mustard gas attacks against rebels and the murder of prisoners.

In early June 1936, Rome promulgated a constitution bringing Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Italian Somaliland together into a single administrative unit divided into six provinces, Italian East Africa. On June 11, 1936, Marshal Rodolfo Graziani replaced Marshal Pietro Badoglio, who had commanded the Italian forces in the war. In December the Italians declared the whole country to be pacified and under their effective control. Ethiopian resistance nevertheless continued.

A failed assassination attempt against Graziani occurred on February 19, 1937. During a public ceremony at the Viceregal Palace (the former Imperial residence) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Abraha Deboch and Moges Asgedom, two men of Eritrean origin, attempted to kill Viceroy Graziani with a number of grenades. The Italian security guard fired indiscriminately into the crowd of civilian onlookers. Over the following weeks the colonial authorities executed about 30,000 persons in retaliation – including about half of the younger, educated Ethiopian population.

This harsh policy, however, did not pacify the country. In November 1937, Rome therefore appointed a new governor and instructed him to adopt a more flexible line. Accordingly, large-scale public works projects were undertaken. One result was the construction of the country’s first system of improved roads. In the meantime, however, the Italians had decreed miscegenation to be illegal. Racial separation, including residential segregation, was enforced as thoroughly as possible. The Italians showed favoritism to non-Christianethnicities such as the Oromo, Somali, and other Muslims (some of whom had supported the Italian invasion) by granting them autonomy and rights effectively abolishing slavery and abrogating feudal laws previously upheld by the dominant Amhara rulers of Ethiopia, in an attempt to isolate the Amhara, who had supported Haile Selassie I.

Early in 1938, a revolt broke out in Gojjam led by the Committee of Unity and Collaboration, which was made up of some of the young, educated elite who had escaped the reprisal after the attempt on Graziani’s life. In exile in Britain, the Emperor sought to gain the support of the Western democracies for his cause but had little success until Italy entered World War II on the side of Germany in June 1940. Thereafter, Britain and the Emperor sought to cooperate with Ethiopian and other local forces in a campaign to dislodge the Italians from Ethiopia and British Somaliland, which the Italians had seized in August 1940, and to resist the Italian invasion ofSudan. Haile Selassie proceeded immediately to Khartoum, where he established closer liaison with both the British headquarters and the resistance forces within Ethiopia.File:EritreaCampaign1941 map-en.svg


E
thiopia (Abyssinia), which Italy had unsuccessfully tried to conquer in the 1890s, was in 1934 one of the few independent states in a European-dominated Africa. A border incident between Ethiopia and Italian Somaliland that December gave Benito Mussolini an excuse to intervene. Rejecting all arbitration offers, the Italians invaded Ethiopia on Oct. 3, 1935.Italo-Ethiopian War (1935-36), an armed conflict that resulted in Ethiopia’s subjection to Italian rule. Often seen as one of the episodes that prepared the way for World War II, the war demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the League of Nations when League decisions were not supported by the great powers.

Under Generals Rodolfo Graziani and Pietro Badoglio, the invading forces steadily pushed back the ill-armed and poorly trained Ethiopian army, winning a major victory near Lake Ascianghi (Ashangi) on April 9, 1936, and taking the capital, Addis Ababa, on May 5. The nation’s leader, Emperor Haile Selassie, went into exile. In Rome, Mussolini proclaimed Italy’s king Victor Emmanuel III emperor of Ethiopia and appointed Badoglio to rule as viceroy.

Italian East Africa - 1936-1940 it.svg

In response to Ethiopian appeals, the League of Nations had condemned the Italian invasion in 1935 and voted to impose economic sanctions on the aggressor. The sanctions remained ineffective because of general lack of support. Although Mussolini’s aggression was viewed with disfavour by the British, who had a stake in East Africa, the other major powers had no real interest in opposing him. The war, by giving substance to Italian imperialist claims, contributed to international tensions between the fascist states and the Western democracies.

Melese   Like his role Model  Mussolini Will be Hanged  in Addis … the moment  of truth  will not be long with coming North African Social Tsunami  that swetp away  his friend Mubarak.

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Fossilized Ethiopians came by Creation or Evolution…

The recent discovery in Ethiopia a fossil more than 3m proving that human “ ancestors” supposedly  walking upright just by finding   a single  fourth metatarsal bone in Ethiopia. Like Lucy and Ardi recently has opened the debate that humans being is the outcome of Creation or Evolution more live. The majority of Ethiopians believe  firmly in creation and they do  not  even know who Charles  Darwin was leave alone his “Theory of Evolution.” The main diffrence between a Creationist  and an  Evolutionist  could be simplified philosophically   being – I Believe and – I Think.

Researchers are hopeful that more such remains may be found as excavations continue. This specimen is being added to the growing list of species which existed 2 to 3.5 million years ago and are clearly either modern primate or modern human, one of which may have been our ancestors.

However, Creationists reject all of this. According to creationism, humans sprouted fully-formed in our current state, as did all animal “kinds” not of «species” according Evolutionists.  Like the “Theory of Evolution” the protagonist use developed their argument as a «Creation Theory”. The evolutionists criticize the creationists saying that they are a religiously motivated political movement, which is why they publish all of their “research” directly to the general public rather than letting other scientists subject it to peer review. The later argues that is why creationism enjoys more than 50% support from the American public while languishing at less than 1% among scientists.

According to the creationist  life rather than having begin in very simple forms – proteins, bacteria, algae, etc., and then gradually evolve into more complex forms to become specious rather  creatures started out as distinct and separate organisms when God created them. Although these distinct creatures have the capability to adapt to their surroundings to a certain extent, Creationists do not believe that they change into completely different and distinct animals through evolution. Creationists affirm that single-celled organisms did not evolve into more complex plants and animals, finally culminating in modern Homo sapiens.


Creationists brought out the following 5 main weaknesses in the scientific evidence of the evolutionists-


  1. They recognize  many  evidences for adaptive changes in species (microevolution), there is no  in recorded history see one species becoming an entirely different, more highly evolved organism;  a fish becoming an amphibian or even a bacteria evolving into anything other than a bacteria;
  2. The Darwinian  fossil record does not show the gradual changes as predicted;
  3. Errors in carbon dating and other methods has been seen though widely  used to determine the age of fossils and the Earth itself;
  4. Though DNA and RNA comparisons between similar and dissimilar species at times confirm evolution, but in other circumstances are inconsistent. To this day the DNA count for chimpanzee the closest ape and man does not even much 42/46…
  5. For the creationists ,Charles Darwin’s “ Theory of Evolution «is as much theory as is the theory of gravity, or the theory of relativity. Unlike theories of physics, biological theories, and especially evolution, have been argued long and hard in socio-political arenas. Even today, evolution is not often taught in primary schools. Creationist accepts that evolution is the binding force of all biological research as unifying theme. Especially in paleontology evolution helps as methodology a powerful way to organize the remains of past life and better understand the one history of life not to change creation. For creationists , evolution as a history of thought about evolution in general and paleontological contributions specifically are often useful to the workers of today helping science in a  iterative process, draws heavily from its history.

According the evolutionists the ancestors of humans were walking upright more than 3m years ago, according to an analysis of a fossilized foot bone found in Ethiopia. The fossil, the fourth metatarsal bone from the species Australopithecus aphaeresis, shows that this forerunner of early humans had a permanently arched foot like modern humans, a key requirement for an upright gait.

Arches in human feet put a spring in our step: they are stiff enough to propel us forward but flexible enough to absorb the shock at the end of each stride.

It is thought that A. aphaeresis could walk on two feet but were unsure whether the creatures climbed and grasped tree branches as well, much like modern nonhuman apes. The fourth metatarsal according the new discovery shows that  afarensis moved around more like modern humans.

“Now that we know Lucy and her relatives had arches in their feet, this affects much of what we know about them, from where they lived to what they ate and how they avoided predators,” said Carol Ward, a professor of integrative anatomy at the University of Missouri-Columbia who led the analysis of the fossil.

“The development of arched feet was a fundamental shift toward the human condition, because it meant giving up the ability to use the big toe for grasping branches, signaling that our ancestors had finally abandoned life in the trees in favor of life on the ground.”

The best-known example of A. afarensis is “Lucy”, who lived in Ethiopia more than 3m years ago. Before that, more than 4.4m years ago, Ethiopia was populated by Ardipithecus ramidus, which seems to have been a part-time terrestrial biped, though its foot had many of the features of tree-dwelling primates, including a highly mobile big toe.

Unlike other primates, human feet have two arches, which stretch along the length of the foot and across it. Ape feet do not have these arches and are far more flexible, with a mobile large toe that is useful for climbing trees and holding onto branches.

These ape-like features are not present in the foot of A. afarensis, however. Given that its foot was more like that of modern humans; scientists think that A. afarensis no longer depended on the trees for refuge or resources 3m years ago.

“Arches in the feet are a key component of human-like walking because they absorb shock and also provide a stiff platform so that we can push off from our feet and move forward,” said Ward. “People today with ‘flat feet’ who lack arches have a host of joint problems throughout their skeletons. Understanding that the arch appeared very early in our evolution shows that the unique structure of our feet is fundamental to human locomotion.

“If we can understand what we were designed to do and the natural selection that shaped the human skeleton, we can gain insight into how our skeletons work today. Arches in our feet were just as important for our ancestors as they are for us. For paleontologist these findings confirm that our human ancestors were walking on two legs by about 3.2m years ago.

While  bipedal locomotion or two-legged walking is one of the hallmarks of the human species, older human fossils still show adaptations to spending some of their time in the trees … for feeding or nesting, but the evidence here suggests that by 3.2m years ago one of our ancestors, Australopithecus afarensis, was fully committed to bipedal walking.”

The debate on the Creationist evolutionist continues so long as the missing link between specious is large and the creatures will contuse to maintain their theory of creation to stand on the firm ground on their milliner believes.

Kampala World Cup Blast announces the metastases of Somalian Syndrome in the dictatorial capitals of the Horn of Africa..

It is very sad and condemnable to use civilian as a  tragic  target for such in human act, especially those sport fans of the World Cup.  Today the Mogadishu  syndrome is expanding in the Horn of Africa with highest rhythm than before. And  the enemy of democracy could exploit any situation to mark its ruthlessness  across the world. The world Cup that unites us in peace has been denounced in Mogadishu and blasted in Kampala!!!

The Ugandan Capital is the new old  target for the continues  Somalian syndrome which is havocking the Horn of Africa.  The main cause of the conflict in the Horn of Africa is the the  perpetuation of the reign of  dictators which become fertile ground for terrorist acts. There is no any  democratically elected head of state or any democratic power transition  in all of the seven countries in the region except that of unrecognized break away  Somaliland.  Somalia (Mogadishu), Ethiopia, Eritrea, Uganda, Sudan, Rwanda leaders  came to power  through  arms way, either  using liberation struggle or a mere coup d’etat.  In the Horn of Africa the state power  is  forged under the barrel of the gun. These men in arm once in power they cling to it and continue to monger war in the region via Somalia. They play  a  sham democratic election to lulle the west. And they   always win over 90% of the vote by ragging. Eash of the state helping   AMISON the African union peace keeping mission in Somali  are  member states of  IGAD and  infested by internal unresolved conflicts. Somalia has been  the Kurdistan of these dictatorial regimes. Since its colonial inception, the dream of  “Great Somaliland” with five sided  stares  are pointing to the five different  Somali populated regions in the Horn of  Africa. Somalis like most of the post colonial African ethnic minorities  are distributed through  the post colonial  frontiers of   Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya. The rest Somalis are at war and  divided into the break away Somaliland,  Puntland and Mogadishu. The Somalian internal conflict helps to maintain  the balkanization of the colonially divided regions like Kashmir and Kurdistan. It looks very far before the  Great Somaliland come to reality.  Rather the balkanization of  Somalia and the rest of the Horn of African States will continue. Under the foot step of Eritrea,  Southern Sudan will soon be the new state with that of  Puntland and Somaliland on the agenda.  The short term consequences of the Somalian  syndrome would be the  continual tragic  Mogadishu  type suicidal  bastes   making civilian victims  in and around the region. In the  middle term such syndrom   would  perpetuate  the power of  the armed dictators in the political scene. The worst would be the  long term consequences which will result in the balkanization of  the region to   small ethical ungovernable  auto proclaimed states. This is  following the paradigm set by the Ethiopian ethno-genocidal   Dictator Melese  Ethnical states since 1991.

The Horn of  Africa has been a fertile ground for conflict and extremism since the fall of the Eastern block  in 1991. This collapse  brought  the fall of the satellite regimes in Somalia and Ethiopia preceded by a military coup in Khartoum in 1989 where Ben Laden was the institutionalist .   It was soon   followed by  the  collapse of the Dictatorial Regime of Siad Bare in Mogadisho  provocating the the fall  of the Somalian State. This was further ignited  by the comming in power of an irridetist rouge  regime of  Melese Zenawie in Addis Ababa, at the fall of the Communist regime of  Mengistu Haile Mariam the same year. These dictatorial regimes use the Somalia as a proxy to their internal and regional post East-West conflict. The best demonstration  would be  that of  Eritea and Ethiopian proxy war in Somalia.  The more the Somalian exterime group  create havoc, the more  the power of these fallen states  increaseas.  The  the regional dictators existance in power is directely proportional to the militarization  and  radicalized Somalia. The Somalian  exterime  ideology is also helping the other dictators of the region to use it to their  Machiavellian political ends   to disguise  as   peace makers and fighters of liberity and stability in the region. Today to prove  your solidarity you have to send a solider to Somalia or Support the fallen regime in Mogadishu controlling only his residence.  Such outright  support  is a ticket to   western finical and diplomatic support  to your own dictatorial  military regime to perpetuate at the cost of the people of Somalia.

The Somalian resistance to the creation of   state is not a news phenomenon in  pre and post colonial Africa.  The Somalis    speaking  the  same language  and having the same religion are highly divided by a sphosticated  clan based rivalry.

Today the horn of African dictators  use Somalia as a escape goat to cover up  their  internal undemocratic tyrancial regimes. Uganda is mined with  its  long overdue internal conflict with the Lords Resistance Army (LRA), of Joseph Kony. The Ugandian strong man  needs the Somali conflict to classify Kony’s Sudanese assisted movment   under  auspices of  international terrorism. The   unfinished Baganda  revolution who gave the country its name  has  recently manifested to the international scenario   at the recent unjustified  burning of their  respected  King’s cemetery in  Kampala. This cynical act  has revived  the  most challenging  long awaited   but  never delivered power transition by  Yoweri Museveni’s regime.   The Ugandan  participation in  AMISOM is just as Trojan  horse for  Melese Zenawi  and pretext to  perpetuate his grip on power home. Yoweri Museveni originated from   Ankoli  Bahima  ethnic group which drives its tribal  ancestry from the Merotic kings of Ethiopia. The Ankoli in power in   Uganda  are the same Ethnic configuration with that of the Tutis  in Rwanda, Burundi and Bayamalenge in Congo. The Kampala  world cup blast could be  from one the internal factors  attached by the majority  population resisting the Bahima hegemony starching from Burundi to the highland of Ethiopia. Uganda  & Burundi’s  implication in the Somalia  will  have a far reaching consequences resulting in a serious of conflict that will engulf  Mogadishu , Addis Ababa, Nirobi, Bujumbura  and Asmara as  continuation of internal ethnic and political  crisis of the   Eastern Africa beleaguered states .  The  de facto  attribution  of  the worldcup blast in Kampala  to Somalia war lords minimizing  the internal factors of each canoutries political set up   will be simplification and playing in the hands of  dictatorial regimes in the region. The bomb is symbolically set to blast in the Ethiopian restaurant to show  and protest the implication of the leaders of Uganda  to the conflict in the horn of Africa .

Burundi also  needs  Somalian cover up to fashion its   long unsolved internal conflict whcih costs thousands of lifes  since the Genocide of  1972. The country  is undergoing post colonial  internal  Ethnic imbalance between the Tutis 15 % ( controlling the army originated from Ethiopia like the Ankole Of Uganda)  and the majority Bawetu over 80% of the population.  Burundi’s participating in Somalia  is an internal  balancing act of Tutsi controlled army by outreaching and supporting  the minority    regime of Ethiopia in Somalia and as a  reenforcement  to their minority  power internally.

Kenya has its northern federated region revendicated by  Greater Somalia as one of  its five  corner stares.  The incumbent president, Kibaki, is a member of Kenya’s largest and probably most powerful ethnic group, the Kikuyu, who total about 22 percent of the population; his rival, Odinga, is a member of the Luo, who comprise some 13 percent of the populace and live predominantly in western Kenya. In their bitter contest, in which Odinga promised to end ethnic favoritism and spread the country’s wealth more equitably, ethnicity was the deciding factor, and a marred victory on either side had always been likely to spark violence. The resent June 2010   Electoral  and that of the 2008 bombing in Nairobi has its Somalian factor resourcing  from the  Somalian populated western region of  Kenya.  Kenya and Djibouti are inside the volcano of the Somalian syndrome as long as they are under  the domino of  minority dictatorial regimes like that of  Ethiopia.

In conclusion the Somlians are the Kurdistans of the Horn of Africa, every regime in the region  uses Somalia to cover up their internal crime.  The result is the expansion of the conflict in all of the region of 200 million inhabitants. In days  to come the regime is condemned we will be seeing more crisis  griping the region so long  as  minority dictators are in power. And more of refugees will be  escaping these rouge and  fallen states to save their lives. The international terrosort orgnaization have found  a fertile ground cultivated  and  delivred by dictatorial regimes. In colnclusion more drastic blasts will be daily life  in the diffrent capitlas of the horn of Africa as long as democraitationzion  and power sharing is in political impasse.

Geghna Ethiopianism

Kris Sledge, a U.S. citizen injured after an explosion attack at the "Ethiopian village" restaurant rests inside a ward at the International hospital in Kampala, July 12, 2010. Somali Islamists said ...

Somalia’s Militants to Target Burundi

‘Suicide vest’ found after Uganda World Cup blasts

BBC News
Officials said the dead and wounded also included Ethiopian, Eritrean, Indian and Congolese nationals. Mr Opolot added that the other victims had not yet 

Map of Kampala


httpvhd://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vYKoKsfjbyY

How should Ugandans Respond?

23 Killed Watching World Cup

Get the Flash Player to see the wordTube Media Player.

Uganda bombings: who was behind them?

Ethiopia confirms death of its citizens in Uganda terror attack …

More than 20 deaths feared after blasts in Uganda

23 Killed in an Ethiopian Restaurant  Kampala  Watching World Cup

Islamist militia members walk past a training camp in Somalia's lower Shabelle region in October 2009.

httpvhd://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dfjkhgg2bOw

Opposition Leader Wants ICC to Investigate Uganda’s Leader

Uganda reveals democracy question

BBC

Uganda's President Yoweri Museveni

Museveni’s critics fear he is seeking a third term in office

Uganda’s electoral board has published the question to be asked in next month’s referendum on whether multiparty politics should be restored.

It is: “Do you agree to open up the political space to allow those who wish to join different organisations/ parties to do so to compete for political power?”

The electoral board said it had consulted closely with both sides of the debate before deciding on the question.

Since President Yoweri Museveni came to power 19 years ago, Uganda has operated a unique political system which severely restricted political parties.

Five years ago a similar referendum backed keeping the “movement” system.

Last month, Uganda’s parliament voted overwhelmingly in favour of holding a referendum on the country returning to a full multi-party democracy.

The motion was backed by all but 21 MPs and is being pushed for by Mr Museveni who says “it must go ahead”.

Third term

The one-party movement system of government was introduced to try and prevent the chaos and ethnic conflicts that plagued Uganda throughout the 1970s and early 80s.

At present political parties are allowed to exist but candidates for office must run as individuals – not representatives of a party.

Some had argued that holding a referendum would be too expensive but Mr Museveni has said the people must decide.

The Ugandan government and opposition parties all support a return to multi-party politics ahead of elections in a year’s time.

Mr Museveni’s critics, however, fear that as the constitution is amended to bring in multiparty elections, it will also be altered to let the president seek a third term in office, from which he is currently barred.

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guardian.co.uk home

Tuesday 13 July 2010

‘Terrorism was not really part of the landscape in Uganda’

Sunday’s bomb blasts in Kampala have left the city’s residents shocked. Ugandans face many challenges, but their capital city has, for the past decade or so, felt like a safe, familiar place

One of the victims of the Uganda bomb blasts receives treatment at Mulago hospital in Kampala. Photograph: Str/EPA

Like many people in Uganda, I went to bed at about 9pm on Sunday. I was not really following the World Cup, and I was tired after travelling across the city to visited a friend’s daughter at her boarding school. It had been a long, hot afternoon, and I was happy to get some rest.

At about 1am I woke up and turned the radio on for company. I turned to the BBC World Service. First of all I picked up the result: Spain had won and the Dutch had not played well. Then I realised I was listening to the newsreader announce that there had been two bomb blasts in Kampala.

My first reaction was a mixture of surprise and shock. Ugandans face many challenges, but their capital city has, for the past decade or so, felt like a safe, familiar place. The nightlife is open and easy-going. And the gentleness of central Kampala makes a sharp contrast with other African cities, such as Nairobi and Johannesburg, where hustling and theft is common. Terrorism, of the variety reported on the radio, was not really part of the landscape.

One of the victims of the Uganda bomb blasts receives treatment at Mulago hospital, Kampala

What have people made of the bombings? Over the past day I have picked up a mixture of shock, but also a certain wariness about what the bombings mean.

As is often the case, details emerged in sketchy fashion. At first the numbers were put at 13, then somewhere in the 20s. The local newsreader kept on commenting on the sadness of the events. By the time I left the house yesterday morning there were at least 64 confirmed deaths. Today, the number is 74. The venues targeted were the Kyadondo rugby club in Lugogo, an elegant venue that you pass as you head out of town on the Jinja Road, and the Ethiopian Village restaurant in Kabalaga. Both are popular spots for westerners living in Kampala.

The wariness probably came from the need to be careful about what you say to a foreigner (particularly on something that might link up to national security questions). Many of the people I spoke to refused to offer a definitive statement on what had gone on, and instead focused on the very real human tragedy. As yesterday progressed, survivor’s tales, often in gothic detail, started to emerge in the Ugandan media.

By contrast Uganda’s government was quick to assert culpability. Uganda’s inspector of police, general Kale Kayihura, told the New Vision newspaper that “these people” perpetrated the attack, meaning Somali Islamist movement al-Shabaab. Al-Shabaab is strongly opposed to the presence of an African Union peacekeeping mission in Somalia (Amisom). Uganda has been by far the largest contributor to this peacekeeping mission. The Ugandan military has long been a recipient of support and technical advice from the US government.

Thinking back to yesterday morning, I was struck by the fairly circumspect comments of the BBC’s east Africa correspondent, Will Ross. In fairly diplomatic language he pointed out that there is no proof of al-Shabaab involvement and that “the blasts could be linked to next year’s elections in Uganda”.

Though this will get less play in the west, which mostly sees Africa through its own interests, Ross was referring to the instability of the domestic political scene in Uganda. Ethnic, regional and political antagonisms remain and they will shape next year’s elections. The current government is keen to ensure that President Museveni – in power for 24 years already – continues to serve as Uganda’s head of state.

The nature of the violence – bombings, in a part of the city popular with westerners – has been the hallmark of Islamist violence in Africa and the Middle East. The violence is unlikely to be connected to domestic politics, though this will not silence the rumour-mongerers and conspiracy theorists that congregate around terrorist acts.

What can be said is that Uganda is an increasingly nervous place. The elections give most people cause for concern. The alliance with the US is not without problems. An increasingly hardline version of Christianity may result in tensions with Uganda’s sizeable Muslim population (about 10%). There is also a fairly large Somali population in Kampala, which must now feel vulnerable.

From next Monday to 27 July, Kampala will be hosting the 15th annual summit of the African Union, when heads of state including South Africa’s Jacob Zuma, Libya’s Muammar Gaddafi and Liberia’s Ellen Johnson Sirleaf will be in town. For those living in Kampala it will be a difficult time

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Terror Bombings in Uganda: A Prelude to Regional War?

by Austin Bay
July 13, 2010

Sunday’s terror bombings, which murdered 76 people in Uganda’s capital, Kampala, are another signal that East Africa could face a devastating regional war.

The attack demonstrates that Islamist terrorists willing to commit mass murder to advance their criminal theology remain active in eastern Africa. Americans first became aware of al-Qaida following the August 1998 terror bombings of U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.

Somalia’s al-Qaida-affiliated Al Shabab Islamist terror group has claimed credit for the Kampala massacre. One bomb exploded in an Ethiopian cafe filled with World Cup soccer fans. Al Shabab’s murderers picked that target carefully. Ethiopia supports Al Shabab’s nationalist opponents in Somalia.

Ugandan troops serve with the African Union peacekeeping force in Somalia, which makes Uganda a special target for Al Shabab. Al Shabab’s attacks in Kampala may be an attempt to repeat al-Qaida’s “Madrid Precedent.” Recall al-Qaida launched attacks in Madrid in March 2004, just before Spain’s national elections. A “pro-peace” government was elected, and it withdrew Spanish forces serving in Iraq. Uganda has national elections scheduled for early next year.

A more dangerous regional war, however, lurks in East Africa. Uganda borders on south Sudan. Every day relations between the semi-autonomous Government of South Sudan (GOSS) and Sudan’s national (northern) government in Khartoum deteriorate. The 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), which ended the last north-south war, the Second Sudan Civil War, stipulated that a plebiscite on southern independence be held in 2011. Many southerners believe South Sudan is already a separate country. They support independence — except the national government calls it “secession.”

Conditions exist for renewed civil war, and a nudge or two, a bomb here and assassination there, might ensure it. Al Shabab has studied the map. Should the Third Sudan Civil War erupt, Ethiopia would face war on a third front. Ethiopia already confronts Eritrea and Somalia. Radical Islamists would exploit the religious facets of renewed civil war: South Sudan is predominantly Christian and animist, and the north is predominantly Muslim.

The Second Sudan Civil War lasted two decades, left 2 million dead, created millions of refugees and — despite ritual denials by Khartoum’s Islamists — involved slaving by northern-backed “Arab” militias. Southern Christian and animist black tribespeople were kidnapped then sold. Uganda was a covert ally of the southerners, for many reasons, including close links with the Dinka tribe, which provided the leaders in the south’s Sudan Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA). Arab slaving, however, played a role.

Tribal violence already afflicts southern Sudan. Estimates vary (the areas involved are isolated), but a thousand people died in 2009 in tribal violence in South Sudan. The GOSS claims the north incites violence by providing arms to troublemakers. Sudan’s national president, Omar al-Bashir, is under indictment by the International Criminal Court for genocide in Darfur. Providing arms to willing killers is a proven Bashir policy.

Oil fuels North-South disputes, and in a new civil war oil fields will be battlefields. Roughly 75 percent of Sudan’s oil reserves are in territory that GOSS claims. “Claims” is appropriate because the exact north-south border has not been finalized. The two governments argue over oil income. South Sudan relies on oil royalties for 95 percent of its budget. The north dispenses the revenues. The GOSS contends the north cheated it of $300 million it was due in 2009.

Uganda insists Khartoum still supports Uganda’s Lord’s Resistance Army rebel group, so a new war could bring in Uganda as a military ally of the south. Kenya, and conceivably Ethiopia, might also be openly involved. Kenya has been a conduit for arms to the SPLA. In 2008, Somali pirates hijacked a ship transporting Ukrainian tanks to Kenya. The tanks’ destination was South Sudan.

A vital environmental and economic conflict further exacerbates tensions. Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and Ethiopia have announced they will no longer abide by a 1929 colonial treaty that gives the downriver nations what they regard as an unjust share of Nile water. The Khartoum government and Egypt reject the upriver nations’ contentions.

Oil revenue and water rights disputes, religious differences, ethnic struggles and terrorists exploiting every division — East Africa’s fragile states edge toward a war of the poor that will create greater poverty.

Ethiopian Patriotic Day May 5, 2010, For Mussolinian Melese Zenawie it passed as any other day…

Italian dictator Benito Mussolini had long held a desire for a new Italian Empire. Reminiscent of the Roman Empire, Mussolini’s new empire was to rule over theMediterranean and North Africa. His new empire would also avenge past Italian defeats. Chief among these defeats was the Battle of Adowa which took place in Ethiopia on March 11896. Mussolini promised the Italian people “a place in the sun”, matching the extensive colonial empires of the United Kingdom and France.

Meyazia 27 Square (Arat Kilo) May 5, 1941

Ethiopia was a prime candidate of this expansionist goal for several reasons. Following the Scramble for Africa by the European imperialists it was one of the few remaining independent African nations, and it would serve to unify the Italian-held Eritrea to the northwest and Italian Somaliland to the east. It was considered to be militarily weak, and rich in resources.

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Italy was able to launch their invasion without interference primarily due to the United Kingdom and France placing a high priority on retaining Italy as an ally in case hostilities broke out with Germany. To this end, on January 71935France signed an agreement with Italy giving them essentially a free hand in Africa to secure Italian co-operation. Next, in April, Italy was further emboldened by being a member of the Stresa Front, an agreement to try and control German expansionism.In June, non-interference was further assured by a political rift that had developed between the United Kingdom and France following the Anglo-German Naval Agreement.

The Italo–Ethiopian Treaty of 1928 that delimited the border between Italian Somaliland and Ethiopia stated the border was 21 leagues parallel to the Benadircoast. Acting on this, they built a fort at the Walwal oasis (Italian Ual-Ual) in the Ogaden desert in 1930 and garrisoned it with Somalidubats (irregular frontier troops commanded by Italian officers).

In November of 1934, Ethiopian territorial troops escorting the Anglo-Ethiopian boundary commission, protested Italy’s incursion. TheBritish members of the commission soon withdrew to avoid an international incident but Italian and Ethiopian troops remained encamped in close proximity. In early December, the tensions mounted to a clash that left 150 Ethiopians and 50 Italians dead. This resulted in the Abyssinia Crisis at the League of Nations.

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The League of Nations exonerated both parties for the Walwal incident in September 1935. Italy soon began to build its forces on the borders of Ethiopia in Eritrea and Italian Somaliland.

With an attack appearing inevitable, the Emperor Haile Selassie ordered a general mobilization. His new recruits consisted of around 500,000 men, many of whom were armed with nothing more than spears and bows. Other soldiers carried more modern weapons, including rifles, but many of these were from before 1900 and were badly outdated.

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PiqxVeuYDeI

According to Italian estimates, on the eve of hostilities the Ethiopians had an army of 350,000 men. Only about one-quarter of this army had any kind of military training and the men were armed with rifles of every type and in every kind of condition.

In general, the Ethiopian armies were poorly equipped. They had about 200 antiquated pieces of artillery mounted on rigid gun carriages. There were also about 50 light and heavy anti-aircraft guns (20 mm Oerlikons, 75 mm Schneiders, and Vickers). The Ethiopians even had some Ford truck-based armored cars and a small number of Fiat 3000 World War I-era tanks.

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MXwyqcbIwho

The service-able portion of the Ethiopian air force included three tiny and outmoded biplanes.

The best Ethiopian units were Haile Selassie‘s “Imperial Guard.” These troops were well-trained and better equipped than the other Ethiopian troops. But the Imperial Guard wore a distinctive greenish-khaki uniform of the Belgian army which stood out from the white cotton cloak (shamma) worn by most Ethiopian fighters, and proved to be an excellent target.

In April 1935, the Italian build-up in East Africa started in earnest. In a few months, five regular army divisions and five Blackshirtdivisions arrived in Eritrea. One regular division and a few Blackshirt battalions arrived in Italian Somaliland. These units alone, which did not include Italian units already in East Africa, native units, or units arriving during the war, represented 7,000 officers and 200,000 men.

The equipment for the build-up alone included 6,000 machine guns, 700 pieces of artillery, 150 tankettes, and 150 aircraft.

On October 31935Marshal Emilio De Bono advanced into Ethiopia from Eritrea without declaration of War. De Bono had a force of 100,000 Italian soldiers and 25,000 Eritrean soldiers under his command. A smaller force, under the command of General Rodolfo Graziani, advanced into Ethiopia from Italian Somaliland.

By October 6Adwa was captured by De Bono’s forces. Adowa was the site of Italian defeat in the First Italo–Ethiopian War (1895-1896). By October 15, De Bono’s forces moved on to capture the holy capital of Axum. The invading Italians looted the Obelisk of Axum after capturing the city.

On October 7, the League of Nations declared Italy the aggressor and started the slow process of imposing sanctions. These did not extend to several vital materials, such as oil. The British and French argued that if they refused to sell oil to the Italians, they would then simply get it from the United States, which was not a member of the League (the British and French wanted to keep Mussolini on side in the event of war with Germany, which by 1935 was looking like a distinct possibility). In an effort to find compromise, the Hoare-Laval Plan was drafted (which essentially handed 3/5ths of Ethiopia to the Italians without Ethiopia’s consent on the condition the war ended immediately), but when news of the deal was leaked public outrage was such that the British and French governments were forced to wash their hands of the whole affair.

By mid-December, De Bono was replaced by General Pietro Badoglio because of the slow, cautious nature of his advance. Haile Sellassie decided to test this new general with an attack, but his forces were repelled due to the Italians’ superiority in heavy weapons like machine guns and artillery.

On January 201936, the Italians resumed their northern offensive at the First Battle of Tembien between the Warieu Pass andMek’ele. The fighting proved inconclusive and ended in a draw on January 24.

Following the capture of Amba Aradam (Battle of Enderta) on 15 February, the Italians advanced again on the northern front, commencing the Second Battle of Tembien on 27 February. This resulted in an Italian victory and the fall of Worq Amba.

At the Battle of Maych’ew on 31 March 1936, the Italians defeated a counteroffensive by the main Ethiopian army, including the Imperial Guard, under Haile Selassie.

During the final months of 1935 the Italian had also advanced from the south through the Ogaden Desert from Somalia. There were clashes on the River Dewa (30 October), Hamaniei (11 November) and Lama Scillindi (25 November). On 31 December the Italians occupied Denan.

Between January 12 and January 161936, the Italians defeated the southermost Ethiopian army in the Battle of Genale Wenz. After a February lull, the Italians began a major thrust towards the city of Harar. On March 29, Graziani’s forces firebombed and subsequently captured the city. Two days later, the Italians won the last major battle of the war, the Battle of Maychew. Haile Selassie fled into exile on May 2, and Badoglio’s forces took the capitalAddis Ababa, on May 51936.

Italy annexed the country on May 7, and the Italian kingVictor Emmanuel III, was proclaimed emperor on May 9. Italy merged Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somaliland into a single state known as Italian East Africa.

In addition to conventional weaponry, Badoglio’s troops also made substantial use of mustard gas, in both artillery and aerial bombardments. In total, the Italians deployed between 300 and 500 tonnes of mustard gas during the war, despite having signed the1925 Geneva Protocol. The deployment of gas was not restricted to the battlefield, however, as civilians were also targeted by the Italians, as part of their attempt to terrorise the local population. Furthermore, the Italians carried out gas attacks on Red Cross camps and ambulances.[15]

The armed forces disposed of a vast arsenal of grenades and bombs loaded with mustard gas which were dropped from airplanes. This substance was also sprayed directly from above like an “insecticide” onto enemy combatants and villages. It was Mussolini himself who authorized the use of the weapons:

“Rome, 27 October ’35. A.S.E. Graziani. The use of gas as an ultima ratio to overwhelm enemy resistance and in case of counterattack is authorized. Mussolini.”

“Rome, 28 December ’35. A.S.E. Badoglio. Given the enemy system I have authorized V.E. the use even on a vast scale of any gas and flamethrowers. Mussolini.”

Mussolini and his generals sought to cloak the operations of chemical warfare in the utmost secrecy, but the use of gas was revealed to the world through the denunciations of the International Red Cross and of many foreign observers. The Italian reaction to these revelations consisted in the “erroneous” bombardment (at least 19 times) of Red Cross tents posted in the areas of military encampment of the Ethiopian resistance. The orders imparted by Mussolini, with respect to the Ethiopian population, were very clear:[16]

“Rome, 5 June 1936. A.S.E. Graziani. All rebels taken prisoner must be killed. Mussolini.”

“Rome, 8 July 1936. A.S.E. Graziani. I have authorized once again V.E. to begin and systematically conduct a politics of terror and extermination of the rebels and the complicit population. Without the lex talionis one cannot cure the infection in time. Await confirmation. Mussolini.”

The predominant part of the work of repression was carried out by Italians who, besides the bombs laced with mustard gas, instituted forced labor camps, installed public gallows, killed hostages, and mutilated the corpses of their enemies. Graziani ordered the elimination of captured guerrillas by way of throwing them out of airplanes in mid-flight. Many Italian troops had themselves photographed next to cadavers hanging from the gallows or hanging around chests full of detached heads.

One episode in the Italian occupation of Ethiopia was the slaughter of Addis Ababa of February 1937 which followed upon an attempt to assassinate Graziani. In the course of an official ceremony a bomb exploded next to the general. The response was immediate and cruel, as he said “Avenge me! Kill them all!”. The Black Shirts of the Fascist Militia fired randomly into the Ethiopians present at the ceremony killing large numbers, and immediately after poured out into the streets of Addis Ababa where they killed the Ethiopian civilians that they encountered. They also set fire to homes and organized the mass executions of a large groups of people.[17] The massacre claimed lives of 30,000 Ethiopians.

When victory was announced on 9 May 1936 from the balcony of Palazzo Venezia, the Italian population (who had not been informed of the use of mustard gas by their troops) was jubilant.

On 30 June 1936, Emperor Haile Selassie gave a stirring speech before the League of Nations denouncing Italy’s actions and criticizing the world community for standing by. He warned that “It is us today. It will be you tomorrow”. As a result of the League’s condemnation of Italy, Mussolini declared the country’s withdrawal from the organization.

The Italian Empire was officially recognized by the Empire of Japan on November 18, 1936.[18]

The occupation was marked by recurring guerrilla campaigns against the Italians, and reprisals which included mustard gas attacks against rebels and the murder of prisoners.

In early June 1936, Rome promulgated a constitution bringing Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Italian Somaliland together into a single administrative unit divided into six provinces, Italian East Africa. On June 111936, Marshal Rodolfo Graziani replaced Marshal Pietro Badoglio, who had commanded the Italian forces in the war. In December the Italians declared the whole country to be pacified and under their effective control. Ethiopian resistance nevertheless continued.

A failed assassination attempt against Graziani occurred on February 191937. During a public ceremony at the Viceregal Palace (the former Imperial residence) in Addis AbabaEthiopia, Abraha Deboch and Moges Asgedom, two men of Eritrean origin, attempted to kill Viceroy Graziani with a number of grenades. The Italian security guard fired indiscriminately into the crowd of civilian onlookers. Over the following weeks the colonial authorities executed about 30,000 persons in retaliation – including about half of the younger, educated Ethiopian population.

This harsh policy, however, did not pacify the country. In November 1937, Rome therefore appointed a new governor and instructed him to adopt a more flexible line. Accordingly, large-scale public works projects were undertaken. One result was the construction of the country’s first system of improved roads. In the meantime, however, the Italians had decreed miscegenation to be illegal. Racial separation, including residential segregation, was enforced as thoroughly as possible. The Italians showed favoritism to non-Christianethnicities such as the OromoSomali, and other Muslims (some of whom had supported the Italian invasion) by granting them autonomy and rights effectively abolishing slavery and abrogating feudal laws previously upheld by the dominant Amhara rulers of Ethiopia, in an attempt to isolate the Amhara, who had supported Haile Selassie I.

Early in 1938, a revolt broke out in Gojjam led by the Committee of Unity and Collaboration, which was made up of some of the young, educated elite who had escaped the reprisal after the attempt on Graziani’s life. In exile in Britain, the Emperor sought to gain the support of the Western democracies for his cause but had little success until Italy entered World War II on the side of Germany in June 1940. Thereafter, Britain and the Emperor sought to cooperate with Ethiopian and other local forces in a campaign to dislodge the Italians from Ethiopia and British Somaliland, which the Italians had seized in August 1940, and to resist the Italian invasion ofSudan. Haile Selassie proceeded immediately to Khartoum, where he established closer liaison with both the British headquarters and the resistance forces within Ethiopia.File:EritreaCampaign1941 map-en.svg


Ethiopia (Abyssinia), which Italy had unsuccessfully tried to conquer in the 1890s, was in 1934 one of the few independent states in a European-dominated Africa. A border incident between Ethiopia and Italian Somaliland that December gave Benito Mussolini an excuse to intervene. Rejecting all arbitration offers, the Italians invaded Ethiopia on Oct. 3, 1935.Italo-Ethiopian War (1935-36), an armed conflict that resulted in Ethiopia’s subjection to Italian rule. Often seen as one of the episodes that prepared the way for World War II, the war demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the League of Nations when League decisions were not supported by the great powers.

Under Generals Rodolfo Graziani and Pietro Badoglio, the invading forces steadily pushed back the ill-armed and poorly trained Ethiopian army, winning a major victory near Lake Ascianghi (Ashangi) on April 9, 1936, and taking the capital, Addis Ababa, on May 5. The nation’s leader, Emperor Haile Selassie, went into exile. In Rome, Mussolini proclaimed Italy’s king Victor Emmanuel III emperor of Ethiopia and appointed Badoglio to rule as viceroy.

Italian East Africa - 1936-1940 it.svg

In response to Ethiopian appeals, the League of Nations had condemned the Italian invasion in 1935 and voted to impose economic sanctions on the aggressor. The sanctions remained ineffective because of general lack of support. Although Mussolini’s aggression was viewed with disfavour by the British, who had a stake in East Africa, the other major powers had no real interest in opposing him. The war, by giving substance to Italian imperialist claims, contributed to international tensions between the fascist states and the Western democracies.

Melese   Like his role Model  Mussolini Will be Hanged  in Addis … the moment  of truth  will not be long

httpvhd://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YFSsRTDACCo

Ethiopian-Kenyan Phenomenon Marathon 2010

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Tsegaye Kebede crosses the line first to secure victory in Sunday's London Marathon.
Boston Marathon men’s and women’s winners Teyba Erkesso, of Ethiopia, left, and Robert Cheruiyot,K
Desta GIrma Won Madrid Marathon 2010

Ethiopian long-distance runner Haile Gebrselassie leads the pack 
Ethiopian long-distance runner Haile Gebrselassie leads the pack, during the 10K race, at the start of the 33rd edition of the Madrid’s Marathon, in Madrid, 
httpvhd://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BSfloOTLDt8

FASTEST MARATHON CITIES

Rotterdam stands on the 1st place in the list of fastest marathon cities.

1. ROTTERDAM 2.05.15,4(2.05.55,7)
2.04.27Duncan Kibet (Ken)2009
2.04.27James Kwambai (Ken)2009
2.04.48Patrick Makau (Ken)2010
2.04.55Geoffrey Mutai (Ken)2010
2.05.04Abel Kirui (Ken)2009
2.05.13Vincent Kipruto (Ken)2010
2.05.23Feyisa Lelisa (Eth)2010
2.05.49William Kipsang (Ken)2008
2.06.14Felix Limo (Ken)2004
2.06.14Patrick Makau (Ken)2009
2. BERLIN 2.05.29,7(2.05.33,3)
2.03.59Haile Gebrselassie (Eth)2008
2.04.26Haile Gebrselassie (Eth)2007
2.04.55Paul Tergat (Ken)2003
2.04.56Sammy Korir (Ken)2003
2.05.36James Kwambai (Ken)2008
2.05.56Haile Gebrselassie (Eth)2006
2.06.05Ronaldo da Costa (Bra)1998
2.06.08Haile Gebrselassie (Eth)2009
2.06.15Titus Munji (Ken)2003
2.06.44Josephat Kiprono (Ken)1999
3. LONDON 2.05.36,6(2.05.57,8)
2.05.10Samuel Wanjiru (Ken)2009
2.05.15Martin Lel (Ken)2008
2.05.20Tsegaye Kebede (Eth)2009
2.05.24Samuel Wanjiru (Ken)2008
2.05.27Jaoud Gharib (Mar)2009
2.05.30Abderrahim Goumri (Mar)2008
2.05.38Khalid Khannouchi (VSt)2002
2.05.48Paul Tergat (Ken)2002
2.06.15Elijah Mutai (Ken)2008
2.06.17Ryan Hall (VSt)2008
4. CHICAGO 2.06.02,5(2.06.12,1)
2.05.41Samuel Wanjiru (Ken)2009
2.05.42Khalid Khannouchi (Mar)1999
2.05.50Evans Rutto (Ken)2003
2.05.56Khalid Khannouchi (Vst)2002
2.06.04Abderrahim Goumri (Mar)2009
2.06.08Vincent Kipruto (Ken)2009
2.06.16Moses Tanui (Ken)1999
2.06.16Daniel Njenga (Ken)2002
2.06.16Toshinari Takaoka (Jap)2002
2.06.16Evans Rutto (Ken)2004
5. PARIS 2.06.28,5(2.06.31,0)
2.05.47Vincent Kipruto (Ken)2009
2.06.15Bazu Worku Hayla (Eth)2009
2.06.23Tadesse Tola (Fra)2010
2.06.26David Kyyeng (Ken)2009
2.06.30Yemana Adhane (Eth)2009
2.06.33Mike Rotich (Ken)2003
2.06.36Ben Zwierzchlewski(Fra)2003
2.06.40Tsegaye Kebede (Eth)2008
2.06.47Wilson Onsare (Ken)2003
2.06.48Driss El Himer (Fra)2003
6. AMSTERDAM 2.06.35,3(2.06.40,1)
2.06.18Gilbert Yegon (Ken)2009
2.06.20Haile Gebrselassie (Eth)2005
2.06.23Robert Cheboror (Ken)2004
2.06.29Emmanuel Mutai (Ken)2007
2.06.39William Kipsang (Ken)2003
2.06.41Elijah Keitany (Ken)2009
2.06.42Felix Limo (Ken)2003
2.06.45Richard Limo (Ken)2007
2.06.47Fred Kiprop (Ken)1999
2.06.49Tesfaye Jifar (Eth)1999
7. FUKUOKA 2.06.47,5(2.07.02,9)
2.05.18Tsegaye Kebede (Eth)2009
2.06.10Tsegaye Kebede (Eth)2008
2.06.39Samuel Wanjiru (Ken)2007
2.06.50Deribe Merga (Eth)2007
2.06.51Atsuhushi Fujita (Jap)2000
2.06.52Haile Gebrselassie (Eth)2006
2.07.13Atsushi Sato (Jap)2007
2.07.15Dmytro Baranovsky (Oek)2006
2.07.19Jaouad Gharib (Mar)2006
2.07.28Josiah Thugwane (ZAf)1997
8. DUBAI 2.07.04,5
2.04.53Haile Gebrselassie (Eth)2008
2.05.29Haile Gebrselassie (Eth)2009
2.06.09Haile Gebrselassie (Eth)2010
2.06.33Chala Dechase (Eth)2010
2.06.46Eshetu Wendimu (Eth)2010
2.07.16Isaac Macharia (Ken)2008
2.07.54Deressa Chimsa (Eth)2009
2.08.01Sammy Korir (Ken)2008
2.08.41Eshetu Wendimu (Eth)2009
2.09.03Abiyote Guta Duguma (Eth)2010
9. SEOUL 2.07.30,4
2.06.49Sylvester Teimet (Ken)2010
2.06.59Gilbert Kirwa (Ken)2010
2.07.06Gert Thys (ZAf)2004
2.07.32Sammy Korir (Ken)2008
2.07.35Paul Kirui (Ken)2010
2.07.37Jason Mbote (Ken)2008
2.07.43William Kipsang (Ken)2004
2.07.45Edwin Komen (Ken)2008
2.07.54Moses Arusei (Ken)2009
2.08.04Bong-Ju Lee (Kor)2007
10. HAMBURG 2.07.31,6
2.06.52Julio Rey (Spa)2006
2.07.23David Mandago (Ken)2008
2.07.27Julio Rey (Spa)2003
2.07.32Rodgers Rop (Ken)2007
2.07.33Wilfred Kibet Kigen (Ken)2007
2.07.36Julio Rey (Spa)2005
2.07.37Robert Cheboror (Ken)2006
2.07.42William Kiprotich K. (Ken)2007
2.07.46Julio Rey (Spa)2001
2.07.48Javier Cortez (Spa)2001

Résultats 2010

Victoire de l’Ethiopien Tadesse Tola en 2h06’41 chez les hommes.
Victoire de l’Ethiopienne Atsede Baysa en 2h22’04, nouveau record de l’épreuve.
Nouveau record de France pour Christelle Daunay en 2h24’22.


Bikila 500 for 50 : Abebe honored by 500 Yards after 50 years in Rome Marthon

httpvh://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vca1QGVAshM-

httpvh://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nQmqEIYI-GU

Ethiopia’s Gena wins Rome Marathon

ESPN.com news services
ROME — Siraj Gena of Ethiopia paid tribute to an Olympic hero in winning the Rome marathon on Sunday, running barefoot while outsprinting two Kenyan rivals to the finish.
Gena took off his shoes with about 500 yards left and then outkicked Benson Barus and Nixon Machichim to finish the 26.2-mile race in 2 hours, 8 minutes, 39 seconds.
Gena was paying homage to Ethiopian Abebe Bikila, who won the 1960 Olympic marathon in Rome after running the entire course without shoes.
“I felt I had to do something to honor Bikila,” Gena told the ANSA news agency. “For me he will always be an enormous inspiration and today I wanted to see what it would be like to cross the line in Rome barefooted like he once did.”
In the women’s race, Firehiwot Dado led an Ethiopian sweep of the podium in 2:25:28.
Kebebush Haile was second in 2:25.31 and Mare Dibaba third with 2:25.38.
Former Formula One driver Alex Zanardi of Italy won the men’s handcycle category, boosting his hopes of competing at the London 2012 Paralympics.
“Now London 2012 is no longer a dream, it has become a realistic possibility,” he said.
Zanardi had both legs amputated above the knee after he crashed during a race in 2001.
About 15,000 runners took part in Sunday’s race.
In Seoul, South Korea, Sylvester Teimet ran a personal best to break the course record and lead a Kenyan sweep at the Seoul International Marathon.
Teimet pulled ahead at the end to win the 26.2-mile race in 2 hours, 6 minutes, 49 seconds on Sunday. He lowered his personal record by 3:04 and beat South African Gert Thys’ 2004 course record of 2:07:06.
Gilbert Kipruto Kirwa was 10 seconds back and Paul Kiprop Kirui was third.
Amane Gobena of Ethiopia won the women’s race in 2:24:13 ahead of Chunxiu Zhou of China and Caroline Cheptanui Kilel of Kenya.
A 62-year-old South Korean man collapsed and died while running the Seoul marathon, according to race organizers. The cause of death was not immediately known.
Information from The Associated Press was used in this report.

Ethiopia’s Gena wins Rome MarathonEmailPrintComments0Share42retweet2ESPN.com news services
ROME — Siraj Gena of Ethiopia paid tribute to an Olympic hero in winning the Rome marathon on Sunday, running barefoot while outsprinting two Kenyan rivals to the finish.
Gena took off his shoes with about 500 yards left and then outkicked Benson Barus and Nixon Machichim to finish the 26.2-mile race in 2 hours, 8 minutes, 39 seconds.
Gena was paying homage to Ethiopian Abebe Bikila, who won the 1960 Olympic marathon in Rome after running the entire course without shoes.
“I felt I had to do something to honor Bikila,” Gena told the ANSA news agency. “For me he will always be an enormous inspiration and today I wanted to see what it would be like to cross the line in Rome barefooted like he once did.”
In the women’s race, Firehiwot Dado led an Ethiopian sweep of the podium in 2:25:28.
Kebebush Haile was second in 2:25.31 and Mare Dibaba third with 2:25.38.
Former Formula One driver Alex Zanardi of Italy won the men’s handcycle category, boosting his hopes of competing at the London 2012 Paralympics.
“Now London 2012 is no longer a dream, it has become a realistic possibility,” he said.
Zanardi had both legs amputated above the knee after he crashed during a race in 2001.
About 15,000 runners took part in Sunday’s race.
In Seoul, South Korea, Sylvester Teimet ran a personal best to break the course record and lead a Kenyan sweep at the Seoul International Marathon.
Teimet pulled ahead at the end to win the 26.2-mile race in 2 hours, 6 minutes, 49 seconds on Sunday. He lowered his personal record by 3:04 and beat South African Gert Thys’ 2004 course record of 2:07:06.
Gilbert Kipruto Kirwa was 10 seconds back and Paul Kiprop Kirui was third.
Amane Gobena of Ethiopia won the women’s race in 2:24:13 ahead of Chunxiu Zhou of China and Caroline Cheptanui Kilel of Kenya.
A 62-year-old South Korean man collapsed and died while running the Seoul marathon, according to race organizers. The cause of death was not immediately known.
Information from The Associated Press was used in this report.

httpvh://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ajGwbZpO1_E

httpvh://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cI_l2lIMBEI

Haile G. beating world Record on the Foot step of  Abebe Bikila

httpvh://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hOnAm4X9Ic8