- MARK BYRNESEthiopia is currently building Africa’s largest hydroelectric power plant. When it opens next year, the “Great Renaissance Dam” will tap into the Nile River. Unsurprisingly, Egypt, a country whose identity and way of life are tied to that body of water, feels threatened by its neighbor’s ambitions.
The new dam will help provide electricity to a country where more than 80 percent live without it. But in Egypt, most of its population is centered near the Nile valley and delta. The former chairman of the National Water Research Center tells Time that the dam will reduce water flow anywhere from 1,300 billion gallons to 6,600 billion gallons per year. It will also increase river pollution, harming fisheries and making it difficult for boats to navigate the river. As Egypt’s foreign minister Mohamed Kamel Amr said recently, “no Nile, no Egypt.”
Tensions between the two nations over the dam project have been palpable. Egypt president, Mohammed Morsi said in a speech on June 10, “we will defend each drop of the Nile with our blood.” During a televised cabinet meeting the week before, several members told the president that “he must destroy the dam through any means available.” Ethiopian prime minister, Hailemariam Desalegn however said recently that “” will stop construction of the dam.
Politics aside, the Nile does play a defining role in everyday life for Egyptians, whether they be farmers or floating restaurant owners. Below, via Reuters photographer Asmaa Waguih, we get a glimpse of the wide ranging ways Egyptians use their treasured river:
A small cruise boat passes Nile City Towers, which is owned by Naguib Sawiris the owner of Orascom Telecom, overlooking the river Nile in Cairo June 7, 2013. (REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih)
A boat passes buildings under construction and the two towers of the Bank of Egypt building (R), overlooking the river Nile in Cairo June 7, 2013. (REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih)
A woman rows, while another holds a net as they fish in the river Nile in Cairo April 16, 2013. (REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih)
Boats sail past the burned out headquarters of former President Hosni Mubarak’s National Democratic Party, on the banks of the Nile in Cairo June 12, 2013. (REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih)
Women wash clothes in the river Nile in Cairo May 20, 2013. (REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih)
A boy jumps into the river Nile as people celebrate the spring holiday of Sham el-Nessim on the outskirts of Cairo May 6, 2013. (REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih)
A boy washes his horse in the river Nile in Cairo May 22, 2013. (REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih)
Men help a priest disembark from a river taxi on the river Nile April 5, 2013. (REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih)
A fisherman rows his boat on the river Nile in Cairo April 13, 2013. (REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih)
A farmer stands near his cow while it drinks from the river Nile in Cairo May 22, 2013. (REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih)
Boys play on a ferry jetty on the shore of the river Nile in Cairo May 22, 2013. (REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih)
People sit on chairs set out by a cafe on the banks of the river Nile in Cairo April 21, 2013. (REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih)
People sit in a cafe overlooking the barrages of al-Qanatir on the river Nile in Cairo May 6, 2013. (REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih)
A woman looks out as she sits in a boat during a cruise on the river Nile in Cairo June 7, 2013. (REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih)
Boats housing restaurants and nightclubs float on the river Nile in Cairo May 8, 2013. (REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih)
Ethiopia has angered Egypt with its plans to construct a massive hydroelectric dam on the Blue Nile, a key Nile River tributary. Ethiopia just divert to start filling the reservoir that may take over 5 years to fill up, mean while the flow of the Nile will be disrupt from Sudan and Egypt. Ethiopia contributes 87 % of the Nile water.
During Monday’s meeting, an Islamist party leader suggested Egypt support Ethiopian rebels to exert pressure on Addis Ababa. A liberal politician suggested spreading rumors that Egypt was buying military planes for possible airstrikes.
The Ethiopian foreign office summoned the Egyptian Ambassador to Ethiopia to clarify the position of his country.
Eritrea after controlling the Red cost and land locking Ethiopia, now is planning to control the Blue Nile Basin with the help of Egypt.
The Eritrean Government is acting as a plate form for Egypt’s historical plan to dominate the Nile, and be able to irrigate her arid southern farms in a dream of becoming a bread basket of Middle East.
Eritrea is known for its training and preparing proxy warriors in the Horn of Africa since here independence in 1993. Even the UN sanction did not intimidate the Red sea state. The living demonstration is Alshabab of Somalia. Isasias Afwerki is said to propose the preparation G7 for the proxy war with Addis Ababa for the control of the source of Blue Nile for Cairo.
In the recent meeting between the two regimes, Eritrea said to participate to realizing Egypt’s century old ancestral dream of controlling the Blue Nile River.
The plan was once crafted with the out sated Dictator Mubarak in his time in power inherited from Jamal Abdel Nasser. The Eritrean Junta to create a new Nile basin state in the horn of Africa as a main base for food for Eritrea under the hegemony of Egypt. This is to assure once for all the source of the Blue Nile to be under the pharaoh’s state control.
As we all know the Eritrean struggle was started and supported in 1960’s by the Nasser’s Egypt. This was done due to the the refusal of the Negus Haile Selassie to the Proposal of Egypt to create a Federation with Ethiopia and Sudan. A master plane to control the source and the flow of the Blue Nile discharging over 87% of the sweet life giving Water to Egypt and Sudan.
In the recent meeting, Eritrea proposed Egypt to use G7 (Genbot 7 Ethiopian Opposition in Eritrea) as a proxy agent to overthrow the regime in Addis Ababa and balkanize Ethiopia. The representative of G7 Mr. Andargachew Tsege was also present at the meeting according to our source in Eritrea. The meeting was held in the Egyptian Resort of the Red Sea. In consequence, in its recent news release the Isasias regime declared his support to Egypt to keep the Lion Share of the Nile according to 1929 and 1959 colonial pact,
Egypt has no other source of life giving water and the recent building of the Ethiopian new Renaissance mega dam of 145 Meter tall and 1KM 800M long with a reservoir of 63,000,000,000 m3 is expected to stop the follow the Blue Nile at list for 5 years. The mega dam has irritated the relation between Egypt and Ethiopia recently. The new Egyptian revolutionary regime wanted to assure by all means the survival of its over 80 million inhabitant.
As history is a living lesson, in 1900’s Egypt had made two unsuccessful wars with Ethiopia in Eritrea with the help of European and US confederated mercenary fighters to have full hegemony over the source the Blue Nile.
According to our sources form Eritrean January 21st mutineers, G7 have already getting the necessary instruction by the Nile state through Eritrea for destabilizing the regime in Addis Ababa.
The new Revolutionary regime in Egypt is said to playing carrot and stake in its new geostrategic plan for Africa. In one hand Dr. Mursi calling rapprochement with Nile basin countries, on the other he is working to destabilizing them to slow down the damming of the river Nile.
The Eritrean B. G. Teleke Keflay alias Menjus is seen escorting Egyptian security forces close to Sawa in the Northern part of Eritrea. They were seen arriving on northern Eritrean Red Sea cost.
The Eritrean regime strategy is following the foot step of Egypt proposing peace with Ethiopia one hand and preparing war on the the other. Thus the long neglected Eritrea would revive financially and Geo strategically in the region.
Sources EPPF from Asmara
The Ethiopian dictator covered under the umbrella of the Social Tsunami that engulfed the Arabic world especially Egypt lunched in human Dam constructions which will completely dry up the Nile river. According to the Ethiopian dictator Melese Zenawie the most gigantic dam will be built on the Nile which will cease the Nile from flowing to Egypt permanently. This will create artificial lake two times more than the actual size of Lake Tana which over 200KM wide. This is a dictatorial night mare of the new horn of Africa’s Water Emperor. Such gigantic dam will provoke stop definitively the annual flood of the Nile which the Egyptian farmers ritually wait every year for their farm since for the last 13’000 years. Such an inhuman dam not only destroy the environment definitively but also will risk the population of Khartoum and Cairo due in an expected earth quake on the volcanic highland plateau of the Horn of Africa. The region is stated on the two active moving plates on the moves permanently to create the news ocean of the world.
Melese Zenawi Death Millennium Dam will collapse and risk down stream riparians on the coming minimum movement of the Eastern Africa Plates:
[stream provider=youtube flv=http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3DEgG2J3DoIYQ img=x:/img.youtube.com/vi/EgG2J3DoIYQ/0.jpg embed=false share=false width=640 height=360 dock=true controlbar=over bandwidth=high autostart=false /]
[stream provider=youtube flv=http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3DhbWUhuL4LEM img=x:/img.youtube.com/vi/hbWUhuL4LEM/0.jpg embed=false share=false width=640 height=360 dock=true controlbar=over bandwidth=high autostart=false /]
Yesterday the Afar region was taken by an Earth Quake:-
On March 31 st Magnitude 4.6 – ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
|Depth||3.2 km (2.0 miles) (poorly constrained)|
|Region||ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION|
|Location Uncertainty||horizontal +/- 11.9 km (7.4 miles); depth +/- 46.5 km (28.9 miles)|
|Parameters||NST= 31, Nph= 31, Dmin=314 km, Rmss=0.93 sec, Gp=122°,|
M-type=body wave magnitude (Mb), Version=5
Melese Zenawie fearing the coming social Tsunami that took Hosni Mubarak tries to deter the attention of the Ethiopians with a new conflict with Egypt. His recent declaration to take over Eritrea did not change the position of the Ethiopian against his regime. The recent intervention in Somalia to fight Al Qaida like his friend in Libya Gaddafi did not have any world attention to him too. The dictator not only in the Nile he is caught in the whirlwind of dam constructions even in the most fragile rift valley of the Omo River. It is a high time to stop such mad man from committing in human catastrophe in the region which is comparable or worth than the resent Japanese Tsunami and earth Quake, by inundating Khartoum and Cairo. In the first phase the dame will cease the flow of the Nile for more than three or four years the time to fill the gigantic dam. This will suck all the water from Lake Tana. In the 2nd phase any movement in the Eastern Africa plates will create will bust the dame risking the lives of millions in downstream cities like Khartoum, Cairo… by artificial flood wiping out everything down river.
The world body must intervene to stop the water dictator from creating artificial catastrophe by the Ethiopian mad man Melese Zenawie who lost his brain in the most fragile part of the world. His main objective is to sell maximum of land for the grabbers by promising them water for irrigation. Such irrigation will stop the flow of the river definitively.
4 min – 1 day ago – Uploaded by lovenium
Ethiopia to construct the Great Millennium Nile Dam with an estimated cost of 80 billion Birr. Ethiopian Government would fully …
1 Jan 2007
MOT 1935: Animated MAP OF ETHIOPIA: Nile River highlighted. Proposed dam just SE of Lake Tana.
4 min – 16 Jan 2011 – Uploaded by EthioArbenya
Meles Zenawi warns Egypt off Nile war ADDIS ABABA (Reuters) — Egypt could not win a war with Ethiopia over the River Nile …
7 min – 14 Mar 2010 – Uploaded by Axumite Empire
8 min – 28 May 2010 – Uploaded by baymillermom
Israel news clip that says Nile river runs from Egypt ,Sudan down toEthiopia. Ethiopia has more of Nile in its country but …
NILE DEBATE EMPHASIZES CONSERVATION, WATER SHARING (East African Form)
MARCH 30, 2011
“President Anwar Sadat once famously threatened Ethiopia with war if Addis Ababa diverted water out of the Nile basin into other areas of Ethiopia.”
Professor Richard Tutwiler of the American University in Cairo says potential projects in Ethiopia and Sudan could help preserve Nile waters
THE NILE RIVER IS A MAIN SOURCE OF WATER FOR MANY COUNTRIES
The Nile is the world’s longest river, spanning a distance of almost 6,600 kilometers.
It is formed from the White Nile, which originates in the Great Lakes region of central Africa, and the Blue Nile, which begins at Lake Tana in Ethiopia. The two rivers meet in Sudan and travel northwards, flowing through Egypt and seven upstream countries before finally emptying into the Mediterranean Sea.
Water use issues have long been a source of contention among the Nile Basin countries, who disagree on what is an equitable distribution of the river’s waters. For decades the answer to that question has been determined by an agreement that’s recently re-negotiated and that could alter the historic water-sharing arrangements for the Nile.
Entitled the Cooperative Framework Agreement, it was signed in late February by Burundi, which joins other countries — Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Rwanda – that are seeking what they consider a more equitable share of the river waters.
Egypt, Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo are still mulling over the framework’s provisions.
The accord was prepared during 11 years of negotiations among nine of the 10 countries in the basin. Eritrea did not participate directly in these negotiations but did serve as an observer. Last May, the document was put forward for signature by the participating governments.
Richard N. Tutwiler, a research professor and director of the Desert Development Center at the American University in Cairo, says with Burundi’s signing, the countries can move on to ratification.
After the sixth signature, says Tutwiler, the agreement stipulates the formation of a commission among the Nile Valley countries to review water control projects along the river basin.
World Bank (Arne Hoel)
FISHERMAN ON THE WHITE NILE (MORADA). KHARTOUM, SUDAN.
“We can expect things might start happening in terms of this commission as early as May of this year,” says Tutwiler.
Egypt and Sudan have reservations about the cooperative framework agreement. “In particular,” says Professor Tutwiler, “article 14 of the agreement is very much in dispute,” especially between downstream countries, Egypt and Sudan, and the other countries.
The issue is water security.
Article 14b does not recognize the historic right of Egypt to 55.5 billion cubic meters of the Nile’s waters, as did the 1959 treaty.
“[Egypt does not] have the power to turn on or turn off the tap of the Nile,” says Tutwiler. “So it is important to point out that Egypt has been lobbying very hard at the negotiating table and with international bodies to define water security so as to maintain the same amount of water it is receiving now and looking to the future as it moves forward.”
RULES OF RATIFICATION
Professor Tutwiler says ratification is a two stage process. Once governments sign the treaty, it must be ratified by the legislature. Out of the nine Nile basin countries, six have signed.
VOA – E. Arrott
IN EGYPT THE NILE HAS ALLOWED AGRICULTURE TO FLOURISH FOR MILLENIA.
Egypt and Sudan have announced they don’t intend to sign the present document in its present form. The DRC is still undecided, but most people think it will sign by May, which, according to Tutwiler, “is the one-year period for signature from the time the document was introduced.”
In the second stage, national legislatures must ratify the agreement. For each country, the process is slightly different, says Tutwiler.
“The idea is if six countries ratify, at least [in those countries] the agreement becomes the legislative law in operation. In other words, among the ratifying countries, they have agreed that it will be a governing document for relations among themselves in terms of cooperation regarding water use,” explains Tutwiler.
“As far as Egypt is concerned,” Tutwiler says, “it does not agree, [even though] if six signed, by default it is bound by the agreement.”
But according to al-Ahram Weekly, Egypt’s assistant foreign minister for African Affairs, Mona Omar, said the new accord is non-binding because Egypt has not signed. An official spokesman for the Egyptian Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources, Essam Khalifa, says the issue can be amicably resolved “with a little bit of understanding regarding the needs of the conflicting parties.”
NILE RIVER TREATIES
The treaty of 1929, between Egypt and then-colonial power Britain, was among the first to govern waters in international river basins. It gave Egypt permission to build whatever projects it liked along the Nile without the consent of other parties, while allowing Cairo to veto up-stream projects that could threaten its share of water.
NILE WATERS FROM ETHIOPIA HELP SUSTAIN EGYPTIAN LIVESTOCK
But Tutwiler points out that post-colonial governments do not recognize it as binding. Tutwiler says the 1959 treaty is recognized as definitive. It guaranteed Egypt 55.5 billion cubic meters of water per year, and Sudan 18.5 billion. The treaty was used as the basis for the agreement between Khartoum and Cairo to build the Aswan dam, which flooded a large part of northern Sudan.
He says none of the upstream countries, such as Uganda, Tanzania, or Ethiopia, recognize the 1929 agreement as valid.
President Anwar Sadat once famously threatened Ethiopia with war if it diverted water out of the Nile Basin into other areas of Ethiopia. Tutwiler says, “By and large Ethiopia has not done that, although they have talked about it and have various projects on the drawing board.”
PRESIDENT ANWAR SADAT
But Tutwiler says Egypt has. “Egypt has taken water out of the Nile and put it across the Suez Canal and into the Sinai, which is not geographically speaking part of the Nile Basin,” he says.
“Ethiopia was very quick to point that out. This was almost 40 years ago, and not since Sadat has Egypt ever threatened Ethiopia in the same way with military action,” she says.
The difficulty of taking military action within the Nile Basin very much work against any real military action, says Tutweiler. Much of the terrain is harsh and Egypt is limited in the reach of its air power. But he says there’s room for recourse to diplomatic and economic actions and solutions.
FOCUS ON SUDAN
Tutwiler says many observers are watching Sudan.
In January, southern Sudanese voted for independence. “The creation of a new southern Sudan state changes the whole equation,” Tutwiler says. So far, the government of southern Sudan has not actually articulated a Nile Basin policy.
Most observers assume that southern Sudan would not want to give up any water that passes through its territory.
A proposed canal could mitigate Nile waters lost in the swamps of southern Sudan
According to Tutwiler, one of the major historical issues regarding Sudan has been a project first proposed by the British in 1904 to build a very long canal in southern Sudan. The world’s largest fresh water swamp is in southern Sudan and half of the Nile water flows from equatorial Africa into that swamp and, he says, “evaporates before it can move on northward to the White Nile.”
The idea of the project is to dig a canal called the Jongeli Canal around the swamp to divert the water flowing to the swamp into the canal. Tutwiler says the project could save up to eight million cubic meters of water from evaporation that could then be used in northern Sudan and on into Egypt.
“Egypt of course would like to have the canal built. They have already started discussion with north and south Sudan on the issue,” Tutwiler says.
So far, the southern Sudanese are not saying they are for it or against it. For now they say it is not a major priority for them because they have a nation to build.
“But one suspects that they would not like to divert that water from the swamp, because in fact southern Sudanese people who live there depend on the swamp for much of their livelihood,” says Tutwiler.
“These people are cattle herders and they need the water. The swamps provide grazing land. If the swamps were to be drained,” Tutwiler says, “those people would suffer economically.”
Southern Sudanese seem not to be interested in pursuing the project and, according to Tutwiler, it might cause problems between them and the northern Sudanese, allied with Egypt.
FUTURE OF THE NILE
Tutwiler says Egyptians are always worried about the future of the Nile, the country’s main supply of fresh water.
“Egyptian concerns are real and well founded,” says Tutwiler. He adds that Cairo’s position for now will be to focus on the question of water security, which is the bone of contention in the current draft agreement.
As far as the states in the region are concerned they will try to persuade the Egyptians that they are also committed to the notion of equitable use of the Nile waters.
THE NILE SUPPORTS EGYPT’S VITAL FISHING INDUSTRY
Egypt is focused on maintaining the current arrangement.
“Their position essentially is, ‘If you leave us to keep 55.5 billion cubic meters of water, we will live within that envelope.’” Tutwiler says, “That will not be easy for the Egyptians because every year the population grows. In fact, every three weeks there is another 100 thousand net gain in the population and the water stays the same,” asserts Tutwiler.
The United Nations says water scarcity exists when a country goes below the national average of 1000 cubic meters per person per year. Egypt needs 80 billion cubic meters of water a year just to avoid water scarcity. Tutwiler says, “Egypt has long passed that threshold because it doesn’t have anywhere near that amount of water for 80 million people.”
Tutwiler says Egypt is making what he calls an admirable effort to develop a strategy to conserve and recycle water and live within its means.
THE UN SAYS A COUNTRY IS EXPERIENCING WATER SCARCITY IF ITS PEOPLE RECEIVE BELOW 1000 CUBIC METERS PER PERSON PER YEAR.
“I think the other countries will probably try to persuade Egypt that whatever specific project that are being proposed will not substantially harm Egypt’s interests, and this I think will be what they will try to say to keep the Egyptians involved in the discussions as cooperators and partners in the basin,” says Tutwiler.
He adds that the Egyptians are willing to discuss those issues in good faith but still are going to think in terms of a kind of bottom line, which is their water security.
ETHIOPIA’S BLUE NILE
Eighty percent of the Blue Nile flows from Ethiopia and reaches the Aswan Dam on the border of Egypt and Sudan. Ethiopia is the key as far as Egypt is concerned
Lately, Ethiopia has undertaken an ambitious program of dam construction in parts of the Nile basin located in its territory. The country has a deficit of power, and most of these dams produce electricity, although some have small irrigation components.
HYDROPOWER AND WATERS FOR IRRIGATION FROM THE NILE COULD HELP DEVELOP RURAL ETHIOPIA
Some studies indicate that properly managed hydro-power dams in Ethiopia could benefit Egypt with more water. “You cannot generate electricity in a hydro-dam unless you let the water through the dam,” explains Tutwiler.
“Secondly,” Tutwiler says, “if you build up a head [of stored water behind the dam] to generate electricity, then in effect you are storing water in Ethiopia where you don’t have nearly as much evaporation as you would in Lake Nasser in the Sahara desert in Egypt and northern Sudan.”
The Blue Nile in Ethiopia is a seasonal river. Most of the water accumulates in the monsoon season between June and September. “By building hydro dams Tutwiler says, “You can actually reduce the effects of flooding and even out the water flow throughout the year.”
This in turn benefits Egypt in terms of the amount of water it can use. According to Tutwiler, it is a kind of ecological balance between, hot season, rainy season, cooler temperatures and hotter temperatures.
WHAT TO DO
“There are many technical solutions as well as developmental projects that can be implemented to improve the ecological balance of the Nile basin,” says Tutwiler.
In the case of Egypt, there is much that can be done to save and reuse water. Tutwiler says Egyptians are actually very much in line with improving their water use efficiently.
Upstream, where the water is generated by rainfall, it’s a different story.
In Ethiopia Tutwiler says, “The watersheds over the last hundred years have suffered a great deal of degradation primarily to deforestation and bad agricultural practices that have created more erosion.”
Tutwiler says the Ethiopian National Water Resources Management Plan has adopted a strategy to try to revitalize a lot of the watershed eco-system so more water can be retained in the soil and in the geology of the Ethiopian highlands.
This would ultimately benefit the downstream countries, because more water would be saved in an ecological and environmentally friendly way with less water lost to run-off or evaporation.
THE CHINA CONNECTION
Tutwiler says politics are changing for the Nile countries. He says as in other African countries, many Nile nations are becoming more stable, and gaining more control over their national territory.
“Ethiopia is a good case in point,” says Tutwiler. “Since the 1970s, after the fall of Emperor Haile Selassie, we had prolonged civil wars and instability, and now for almost 20 odd years Ethiopia has had relative stability.
The country is starting to develop. With all these projects in Ethiopia, such as hydro-power plants, the electricity grid extending outwards, water and sanitation improving, society seems to be progressing economically, though maybe not as fast as they should.”
Tutwiler says, “It is the same in Uganda. The country went through a long period of instability and is now starting to firm up and to make progress.”
He says there’s also a great deal of international interest in foreign investment in the Nile basin region today.
Tutwiler says one of the big players in the Nile basin is China, which is helping finance and build dams in Sudan and Ethiopia.
“Previously,” Tutwiler says, “these large dam projects could only be refinanced through institutions like the World Bank. The World Bank used to use its policy to mediate among competing interests in the basin. Now all that has been replaced by the Chinese.”
Breaking Death Dams
[stream provider=youtube flv=http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3D9_61-wGFlcc img=x:/img.youtube.com/vi/9_61-wGFlcc/0.jpg embed=false share=false width=640 height=360 dock=true controlbar=over bandwidth=high autostart=false /]
[stream provider=youtube flv=http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3D4jsJGZ9c_ss%26feature%3Drelated img=x:/img.youtube.com/vi/4jsJGZ9c_ss/0.jpg embed=false share=false width=640 height=360 dock=true controlbar=over bandwidth=high autostart=false /]
[stream provider=youtube flv=http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3DKqqyXI51580%26feature%3Drelated img=x:/img.youtube.com/vi/KqqyXI51580/0.jpg embed=false share=false width=640 height=360 dock=true controlbar=over bandwidth=high autostart=false /]
Millennium Dam will break in the following wise:- Let us learn and stop damming
[stream provider=youtube flv=http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3Dd5LBomfawLE img=x:/img.youtube.com/vi/d5LBomfawLE/0.jpg embed=false share=false width=640 height=360 dock=true controlbar=over bandwidth=high autostart=false /]
[stream provider=youtube flv=http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3DCV6wvFfv0Ho img=x:/img.youtube.com/vi/CV6wvFfv0Ho/0.jpg embed=false share=false width=640 height=360 dock=true controlbar=over bandwidth=high autostart=false /]
[stream provider=youtube flv=http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3D_DE9kqX9304 img=x:/img.youtube.com/vi/_DE9kqX9304/0.jpg embed=false share=false width=640 height=360 dock=true controlbar=over bandwidth=high autostart=false /]
[stream provider=youtube flv=http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3DbfW5MqT7CSA%26feature%3Drelated img=x:/img.youtube.com/vi/bfW5MqT7CSA/0.jpg embed=false share=false width=640 height=360 dock=true controlbar=over bandwidth=high autostart=false /]
[stream provider=youtube flv=http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3DbWEWVw7TGk4 img=x:/img.youtube.com/vi/bWEWVw7TGk4/0.jpg embed=false share=false width=640 height=360 dock=true controlbar=over bandwidth=high autostart=false /]
In the Imperial Ethiopia war was declared from the king of king’s palace with a great drum known as Negariet. Ethiopia and Egypt had engaged in wars in their respective past and ancient past histories. According to the Antiquities writer Flavius Josephus (37 – c.100 AD/CE) that Egypt won once against Ethiopia with an army led by the Patriarch Moses around the Nile in the Lake Tana at the source of the Blue Nile. In the later days in the time of the 25th Dynasty the Ethiopian kings Shebitku (698-690BC) , Taharqa (690-664 -BC ) ruled over Egypt.
In the past Ethiopian Kings had declared war against Egypt to protect the Copts by using the Nile as deterrence. The Egyptians accepted the Ethiopian demand as the return of the cross of Queen Helen of Byzantines given to the Christian Churches of Jesus found today in St. Mary of Lalibela menaced by the Nile in the past. Ethiopian tradition is full of tells how the kings used to Nile as an arm against the Islamic invention in the past.
In recent times Egypt lost two principal wars against Ethiopia at Gundet 1875 & Gura in 1876 and on the Red Sea shores at the fall of the Ottoman Empire which saved Ethiopia and Sudan from being a part of Egypt once for all.
Today the Ethiopian Strong Man the dictator Melese Zenawie has started beating the drum of war against Egypt. He was born in the historical capital of Ethiopia Adwa, where to this day two of the captured Egyptian canon from the Battle of Gura still stands. The dictator grew playing with this 100 years canons dreaming with a legend of war with Egypt which was won by the King of kings and Ras Alula. The genocidal dictator wanted to win the heart and the minds of Ethiopians by menacing the 2nd strong Army of the Continent after South Africa the dream of his childhood. The Egyptians preferred to play low profile. The new king of the Nile the Axumite Melese Zenawie did bit his lips when he declared that he will bit Egypt in the coming water wars with his army of half million famine dry bones, who are surviving from the a meal from international donation. He has been preparing the African and Ethiopian minds for such eventual outcome.
Now the ball is in the hands of the Egyptian leaders if they are going to accept the Nile Waters to be deviated and used highly commercial farms owned by the international Grabbers. Egypt is caught with election dilemma right now. Melese rugged the May 2010 election won with a record never seen in any Dictator capitals by scoring 99.6% of the votes in his favor.
Horn of Africa’s self proclaimed King of the Waters declared out rightly without respecting the sensibility of the Egyptians and other Nile riparian states in the following terms :-
“Egypt could not win a war with Ethiopia over the River Nile and is also supporting rebel groups in an attempt to destabilize the Horn of Africa nation, Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawie said in an interview.”
‘Such declaration would come out only from a mouth of war monger not from a responsible leader from the African Unity capital Addis Ababa against one of its member states.
Recent refusal of Melse Zenawie’s to compromise and understanding put the riparian countries in a dead lock for more than a decade of contentious talks by claiming reparation from colonial injustice of a previous Nile water treaty signed in 1929 which put Egypt and Sudan in a dilemma and refused to sign. Colonial treaties are the basis for even the existence of Sudan and the rest of Africans as a country. If you touch one of the colonial treaties all will scramble. Melese Zenawie recently recognized and gave lands to Sudan based on his own treaty as a payment for Sudan in order not host his oppositions in its soil. The fall of the Nile Colonial treaty will start war even with Sudan and is the being of the end for the AU which is based on the 1964 Cairo agreement to respect the entire colonial heritage based on the sacro saint frontiers designed by the colonialists. This will be the brining of long post colonial African wars declared by the Water dictator Melese Zenawie.
Under the original colonial pact Egypt is entitled to 55.5 billion cubic meters a year, the lion’s share of the Nile’s total flow of around 84 billion cubic meters, despite the fact some 87 percent of the water originates in Ethiopia.
Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda and Kenya signed a new deal to share the waters in May against the aforementioned colonial one. This was done, by the instigation of Melese Zenawie which will put an end the colonial treaties even to the Existent of Egypt and Sudan as a country. Thus provoking Egypt to call it a “national security” issue.
The Melese the self declared king of the waters words were not in vain. He has built five huge dams over the last decade and has begun construction on a new $1.4 billion hydropower facility — the biggest in Africa menacing even the survival of Egypt and Sudan. Egypt, almost totally dependent on the Nile and threatened by climate change, is closely watching hydroelectric dam construction in the upstream countries trying to work with the Dictator playing in his games by investing in Ethiopia.
Melese from childhood grew dreaming the 1870’s war with Egypt, and had prepared to punish them with waters in any case.
He said not to be happy with the rhetoric coming from the Egyptians but dismissed the claims of some analysts that war could eventually erupt.
“I am not worried that the Egyptians will suddenly invade Ethiopia,” Meles told Reuters in an interview. “Nobody who has tried that has lived to tell the story. I don’t think the Egyptians will be any different and I think they know that.”
The five signatories of the new deal have given the other Nile Basin countries one year to join the pact before putting it into action. Sudan has backed Egypt while Democratic Republic of the Congo and Burundi have so far refused to sign.
“The Egyptians have yet to make up their minds as to whether they want to live in the 21st or the 19th century,” Meles told Reuters in an interview, referring to the fact the original treaty was negotiated by colonial administrators. In reality it is Melese who lives back in 1870’s.
Meles accused Egypt of trying to destabilize his country by supporting several small rebel groups but said it was a tactic that would no longer work.
“If we address the issues around which the rebel groups are mobilized then we can neutralize them and therefore make it impossible for the Egyptians to fish in troubled waters because there won’t be any,” he said
The Egyptian President replied to the provocation of the Ethiopians strong man:
“Egypt’s ties with Ethiopia are friendly and dismissed an Ethiopian assertion that Cairo was backing rebel groups in the Horn of Africa nation. This is the first time we hear that we support any group in any country. This is not something we do with any nation and this is not our form of conduct,” Mubarak told the state-run al-Ahram newspaper, making his first remarks on the issue.” The Egyptian Ryes further added that “”We have very amicable relations with Ethiopia,” “I was surprised by these comments because this is something we cannot do with any Arab or African country.”
After Meles’ remarks, Egypt’s foreign ministry said it was “amazed” by Ethiopia’s suggestion that Cairo might turn to military action in a row over the Nile waters, saying it did not want confrontation.
The Nile is a vital water and energy source for the nine countries stretching more than 6,600 km (4,100 miles) from Lake Victoria to the Mediterranean. Melese was not born in the Nile regions of Ethiopia and never knew the Nile as a child but Tekeze River one of the main tributary of the Nile, where he built on of the megalomaniac dam to this day.
Melese revived his long childhood fantasy by declaring war against Egypt:
“Hopefully that shoud convince the Egyptians that, as direct conflict will not work, and as the indirect approach is not as effective as it used to be, the only sane option will be civil dialogue.” What he meant by direct talk his to destroy the colonial treaties which will have a direct effect in all colonial legacies since one is connected with the other. He is ushering the end of the Horn of Africa as we know it in the post colonial period.
Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni in July called for a scheduled November meeting of the nine countries to be attended by heads of state. Meles said that would not happen now rather he declared war and is taking every thing in his hands without consulting the other riparians .
The last meeting of all sides ended in stalemate and angry exchanges between water ministers at a news conference in Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa.
Egyptian Water Minister Mohamed Nasreddin Allam told Reuters at that meeting “Ask the Egyptians to leave their culture and go and live in the desert because you need to take this water and to add it to other countries? “.
The War of Words is declared now the true ball is in the hands of Egyptians when they see their beloved Nile water is shrinking down slowly from their face by the dams and irrigations canals of the Ethiopian Dictator in the fields of commercial grabbed farms. Traditional Ethiopian farmers do not use the Nile rather the rain, but the news commercial crops like rice needs huge quantities of water. The dilemma is some Egyptians companies are investing in the grabbed land of highland Abyssinia. It is hard whom to trust up riverine or down streamers for a peaceful out come ? UN must interveane before its is too late?
Prof. Muse Tegegne
The Ethiopian Pharaoh, the shameless Melese Zenawie announced publically he will continue to pursue the building of the death dam on the river Omo and on the source of the Blue Nile. He called the people riparians as Butterflies to be eliminated. This is his official defiant declaration even after the African Development Bank and the European Bank blocked his megalomaniac dreams of water power financing at the expense of the people of Egypt, Southern Ethiopia and Kenya. His Dam on omo river will obliged the Kenyans to use the rest of the rivers that otherwise would have streamed to Egypt in their land, since Lake Turkana soon will dry immidately after the finishing of the Gebe III.
Dictator’s raged victory of the election of 23 May 2010, with dumped result of over 99% of the vote was a mock to all democracy loving nations. He publically insulted the US dam and that of the Survival international in the video here in Amharic below. He staged a demonstration in Washington DC to force the US government to change position against Egypt and support his megalomaniac damming projects over the Nile head waters. Melese the Sick Man of the Horn of Africa does not care for any environment destruction of the Ethiopian water basin. Melese to our surprise and that of the whole world was elected to represent the African continent on the international meetings where he produced a shameful result.
Melese Zenewie the Genocidal- Megalomaniac-Raciest-Mad Man must be halted before he destroys the region by war and unprecedented conflict through environmental cataclysm. This could be done by collective intervention supported by the UN. The UN Security Council must consider this sick man in power seriously than any eventual atomic treat in any part of the world. Since he actively produces destruction by proxy terrorism in Somalia, damming in most radical and expedient manor, by financing his way to power through famine and keep perpetuating the death of millions through endemic hunger.
European Investment Bank abandons Ethiopia mega dam5 August 2010
The European Investment Bank (EIB) has announced it is no longer considering funding Africa’s tallest dam, in Ethiopia. The hydroelectric dam, called Gibe III, has drawn international criticism because of the devastating effect it is likely to have on the food security of at least eight Ethiopian tribes.
In a statement, the EIB claims to have withdrawn from Gibe III because the Ethiopian government has found alternative funding sources for the dam. However the ICBC, the state-owned Chinese bank recently discussed as a potential funder, recently made it clear that the deal is not yet settled and far from guaranteed.
Before stepping back from Gibe III, the EIB completed a review of existing environment and social impact studies for the dam. The review confirms concerns from Survival and others that the lives of the tribes living in the Lower Omo Valley, downstream of Gibe III, will be fundamentally altered and their food security threatened if the dam is complete. The study also acknowledges that these tribes have not been adequately consulted.
The Lower Omo River in south west Ethiopia is home to eight different tribes whose population is about 200,000. They have lived there for centuries.
However the future of these tribes lies in the balance. A massive hydro-electric dam, Gibe III, is under construction on the Omo. When completed it will destroy a fragile environment and the livelihoods of the tribes, which are closely linked to the river and its annual flood.
|Hamar girls display their ornate hair and adornments.|
© Eric Lafforgue/Survival
Salini Costruttori, an Italian company, started construction work on the Gibe III dam at the end of 2006, and has already built a third of it.
China’s largest bank, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), has agreed to fund part of the construction of the dam. The Ethiopian government has also asked the African Development Bank and the Italian government to fund Gibe III, and they are expected to make a decision soon.
Survival and various regional and international organisations believe that the Gibe IIIDam will have catastrophic consequences for the tribes of the Omo River, who already live close to the margins of life in this dry and challenging area.
We are calling on the African Development Bank and other potential funders not to support this project until a complete and independent social and environmental impact study is carried out and the tribal peoples have been fully consulted and given their free informed and prior consent.
European Investment Bank abandons Ethiopia mega dam
5 AUGUST 2010
Act now to help the Omo Valley tribes
- Write a letter to the Prime Minister of Ethiopia urging him to reconsider the project.
- Donate to Survival’s campaign for the Omo Valley Tribes and other campaigns.
- Sign the petition to stop the Gibe III dam.
Mubarak pledges to keep Nile water in Egypt
While inaugurating the new Saft el-Laban corridor in Giza, President Mubarak assured that Nile water “will not extend beyond Egyptian borders.”
Mubarak further called for making optimal use of Nile water, carrying out seawater desalination projects, and using modern technology to develop new types of crops that can be irrigated with salt water in order to satisfy the growing demand for food.
Diaa Eddin al-Qoussi, former advisor to the minister of irrigation, told Al-Masry Al-Youm that Mubarak’s statements clearly demonstrate that Egypt will not give up its Nile water quota in order to satisfy Israel. He added that Mubarak’s statements further emphasize that Egypt rejects any negotiations which aim to bring Nile water to Israel.
Maghawri Shehata Diab, former president of Minufiya University and a water expert, said Mubarak’s statements reflect a clear understanding of the geographical nature of the Nile Basin, as well as of the political and legal dimensions governing the distribution of water.
In related news, Kenya has announced that it is carrying out an assessment of the impact of Ethiopia’s Gibe III Dam. The dam, intended to generate hydroelectric power, would become the second largest dam in Africa after Egypt’s High Dam in Aswan.
The massive dam is scheduled to be completed by 2012 at an estimated cost of US$1.76 billion. Construction of the dam is mainly financed by the African Development Bank. The World Bank withdrew funding for the project under pressure from non-governmental organizations.
The dam will generate 1,800 megawatts of electricity, according to the Ethiopian government, which also says that Kenya has pledged to purchase some of the energy produced by the dam. As a result, Kenyan environmental groups have accused their government of taking greater interest in the well-being of Ethiopians.
The Ethiopian government says that environmental impact studies have shown that the dam will not negatively impact life in any local communities.
The Kenyan Minister of Power said that the Kenyan government and the European Investment Bank will both study the impact of the dam. The results of both studies will be submitted to the Kenyan government in December.
The Kenyan government’s decision to examine the potential impact of building the dam came in response to local and international pressure from rights groups. These groups cited Egypt’s threat of military intervention if Ethiopia carried out any projects that would intervene with the flow of the Blue Nile.
Translated from the Arabic Edition.
“If Ethiopia takes any action to block our right to the Nile waters, there will be no alternative for us but to use force. Tampering with the rights of a nation to water is tampering with its life, and a decision to go to war on this score is indisputable in the international community.” President Anwar el-Sadat
“We are not begging Egypt and Sudan to give us our fair share of the Nile,” Ethiopia’s water minister, Asfaw Dingamo, said on June 24. “No soldier on the Nile will prevent us from using the waters as long as we are not causing any significant harm to each other.”
The Nile form Greek word “Nelios”, meaning River Vally is the longest river in the world. The only river flowing from south to the north to words the orion constellation with the sphinx of Egypt with Giza Pyramid it marks the Milk-way known since the 12’000 BC in pre-Delugeian Egypt.
In the pharaonic Egypt over 5000 years ago the Nile was flowing under the foot of the Sphinx flooding at the rise of Sirius. It was a very important star to the ancient Egyptians, who called it the Star of Isis or the Nile Star .
On the rising of Sirius Egyptians knew it would soon be time for the flooding. This Flooding the Ethiopian dictator Menese Zenawie will be soon stopping. The seasonal flooding of the Nile is all the Egyptian life and the Zodiac as a center of the Earth is interwoven. The Twelve stars and the signs are also marked by the seasonal flow of the Nile river. Melese Zenawie the New Pharaoh of Ethiopia will be soon stopping draining Bahr al-Azraq the only source of the fertility and soil for livelihood for Egypt. 87 % of the Nile rises from Ethiopian high lands.
River Ruvyironza in When it comes from lake Victoria it changes its name to whit Nile and e flows generally north of and into and meets its tween Blue Nile known also Abay in Ethiopia or Bahr al-Azraq at Khartoum. Rising from the Abyssinian highlands travels 1529 km (950 mi) from Lake T’ana at the altitude of 2,150 m (7,054 ft) above sea level. From the confluence of the White and Blue Nile, the river continues to flow northwards into and on to the Mediterranean Sea. From its source Ruvyironza River it is 6671 km (4145 mi) long making the Nile river basin has an area of more than 3,349,000 sq km (1,293,049 sq mi).is the ultimate source of the Nile, it changes it flows to Kagera River. Kagera follows northern northward, connects the three countries the Great Lake , and slowly drains to Lake Victoria.
The Nile Cities like Cairo, Gondokoro, Khartoum, Aswan, Thebes/Luxor, Karnak, and the town of Alexandria lies near the Rozeta branch will soon short of sweet water to drink because the new megalomaniac Dictator Melese Zenawie once supported by Egypt during his struggle, will control the flow.
The major dams like Roseires Dam, Sennar Dam, Aswan High Dam, and Owen Falls Dam soon will be at the desposal the Water Dictator in Addis Ababa.
Egypt is one of the hottest and sunniest countries in the world. With the exception of a strip about 80 km/50 mi wide along the Mediterranean coast, Egypt has a desert climate, being entirely within the Sahara. While Ethiopia is located in the tropics and variations in altitude have produced a variety of microclimates.
The legendary fertility of Egypt is a consequence of the fact that about 3% of the country consists of the Nile valley and delta. The river Nile has no tributaries within Egypt but is nourished by the heavy rains that fall far to the south in Ethiopia and East Africa. The Nile valley and delta are intensively cultivated by irrigation and contain about 95% of Egypt’s population. The Mediterranean coastal strip has an average annual rainfall of 100-200mm/4-8 in, which is not sufficient to support crops. Over the rest of Egypt, roughly south of Cairo, the annual rainfall is a mere 25-50 mm/1-2 in. In the contrary Ethiopia revives 100 times rains fall morthan Egypt. The Ethiopian mean annual rainfall ranges from 2000-mm over some pocket areas in the southwest highlands, and less than 250-mm in the lowlands. In general, annual precipitation ranges from 800 to 2200-mm in the highlands (>1500 meters) and varies from less than 200 to 800-mm in the lowlands (<1500 meters). Rainfall also decreases northwards and eastwards from the high rainfall pocket area in the southwest.
The Ethiopian dictator Melese Zenawie is trying to lull Egypt to its destruction. He publicly claims that Egypt will receive pure water from Ethiopia witout any soil in his Egyptian TV interview. Thus, it is the end of Egypt as we know it. Egypt needs the soil embedded Nile water. Without such water the soil of Egypt’s farm lands will lose that yearly renovating fresh soil from the Ethiopian Highland plateau. The Nile will be transformed according to Melese Zenawe to White Nile. The new Ethiopian Blue Nile converted to White Nile will not make it to Egypt. It will vaporize in the Nubian Desert. The soil keeps the constancy of the two Niles to resist in crossing over 40°C burning Nubian desert to flow to Egypt.
The Ethiopian Dictator as recently remarked not only he will deprive the Nile from its soil content but also as he will control the yearly flood of the river( listen to his declaration in the video here under). The Nile River’s average discharge is about 300 million cubic meters per day will be soon be an old story when he start bottling and selling the sweet water in dollar. This undo flood control will destroy the Flora and fauna natural cycle near and around the great pharaonic river.
The megalomaniac Water Pharaoh of Ethiopia Melese Zenewa just to have a regional undue power is putting at risk the lives of millions of inhabitants in Ethiopia (Omotic people), Kenya ( lake Turkana ) Sudan and Egypt ( the Nile), by construction 0ver 500 dams in the principal water heads of the region.
Egypt pharaonic needs the yearly floods of the Nile. This in turn keeps the Egypt farm land refreshed and the cycle of the minimum of riverian annually need will be maintained. Ethiopia with annual rain fall of 2000mm does not need to build dams which will deprive Egypt who has only 200 mm of yearly rains. Ethiopia rather could use alternative energy sources, like thermodynamic, Solar, Wind, sleeping turbines (the Chinese are expert in this matter rather than building huge useless dams for their new friend Melese Zenawi). Egypt could even participate in the development of Geothermal energy rather than grabbing land in Ethiopia.
The Nile water constant flow without yearly flooding will completely change Egypt way of life around the Nile.
Ethiopia having over 12 rivers and 12 lakes does not need to stabilize the Nile and purify the water reaching Egypt if any left any way.
The Ethiopian Dictator is preparing for the coming war with Egypt. He has already send pamphlets to be distributed and mobilize the Ethiopians in Diaspora:- Read
Egypt softens position in Nile dispute
Egypt sounded a conciliatory note on Monday in a dispute over how Nile waters should be shared by the countries it passes through at an African summit in the Ugandan capital Kampala.
After more than a decade of talks driven by anger over the perceived injustice of a previous Nile water treaty signed in 1929, Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda and Kenya signed a new deal in May without their northern neighbours.
The five signatories have given the other Nile Basin countries — Egypt, Sudan, Burundi and Democratic Republic of the Congo — one year to join the pact but the countries have been torn by behind-the-scenes debate since the signing.
“There are no strategic differences between us,” Egyptian Prime Minister Ahmed Nazif told reporters at the summit. “The issue is only on some technical points that need resolution. The purpose of the Nile Basin agreements is development.”
The words mark a softening of the Egyptian position since a meeting of water ministers from the nine countries last month in the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa.
“Ask the Egyptians to leave their culture and go and live in the desert because you need to take this water and to add it to other countries? No,” Egyptian Water Minister Mohamed Nasreddin Allam told Reuters at that meeting.
The Nile, stretching more than 6,600 km (4,100 miles) from Lake Victoria to the Mediterranean, is a vital water and energy source for the countries through which it flows.
Egyptian state news agency MENA reported that Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni and Nazif agreed at the AU summit that a meeting of the nine states, to take place in Nairobi by November, should be attended by heads of state.
Burundi and Democratic Republic of the Congo have not signed the deal yet and have so far been tight-lipped about whether they plan to or not.
Under the original pact Egypt, which faces possible water shortages by 2017, is entitled to 55.5 billion cubic metres a year, the lion’s share of the Nile’s total flow of around 84 billion cubic metres.
Some 85 percent of the Nile’s waters originate in Ethiopia.
May 7, 1929 – The Agreement between Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
- Egypt and Sudan utilize 48 and 4 billion cubic meters of the Nile flow per year, respectively;
- The flow of the Nile during January 20 to July 15 (dry season) would be reserved for Egypt;
- Egypt reserves the right to monitor the Nile flow in the upstream countries;
- Egypt assumed the right to undertake Nile river related projects without the consent of upper riparian states.
- Egypt assumed the right to veto any construction projects that would affect her interests adversely.
This agreement included:
In effect, this agreement gave Egypt complete control over the Nile during the dry season when water is most needed for agricultural irrigation. It also severely limits the amount of water allotted Sudan and provides no water to any of the other riparian states.
- This agreement included:
- The controversy on the quantity of average annual Nile flow was settled and agreed to be about 84 billion cubic meters measured at Aswan High Dam, in Egypt.
- The agreement allowed the entire average annual flow of the Nile to be shard among the Sudan and Egypt at 18.5 and 55.5 billion cubic meters, respectively.
- Annual water loss due to evaporation and other factors were agreed to be about 10 billion cubic meters. This quantity would be deducted from the Nile yield before share was assigned to Egypt and Sudan.
- Sudan, in agreement with Egypt, would construct projects that would enhance the Nile flow by preventing evaporation losses in the Sudd swamps of the White Nile located in the southern Sudan. The cost and benefit of same to be divided equally between them. If claim would come from the remaining riparian countries over the Nile water resource, both the Sudan and Egypt shall, together, handle the claims.
- If the claim prevails and the Nile water has to be shared with another riparian state, that allocated amount would be deducted from the Sudan’s and Egypt’s and allocations/shares in equal parts of Nile volume measured at Aswan.
- The agreement granted Egypt the right to constructs the Aswan High Dam that can store the entire annual Nile River flow of a year.
- It granted the Sudan to construct the Rosaries Dam on the Blue Nile and, to develop other irrigation and hydroelectric power generation until it fully utilizes its Nile share.
- A Permanent Joint Technical Commission to be established to secure the technical cooperation between them.