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Dams crumbling

The Nile, Egypt’s lifeline in the desert, comes under threat by damming on its sources by East African Dictators

By Jeffrey Fleishman, Los Angeles Times

original title

The Nile, Egypt’s lifeline in the desert, comes under threat

November 11, 2012

Poor African capitals are increasingly challenging Cairo for the river’s water, without which Egypt’s economy would wither and die.

Nile River's future is the future of EgyptEgyptians sit near the Nile River at sunset in Cairo. Neighboring African countries at the river’s source, notably Ethiopia, no longer feel bound by colonial-era agreements and are moving to siphon away larger shares of water for electricity, irrigation and business to meet demands of burgeoning populations. (John Moore / Getty Images / February 5, 2011)

CAIRO — Overwhelmed by cascading economic and political problems since the overthrow of Hosni Mubarak, this nation teeters from within even as it biggest threat may lie hundreds of miles away in the African highlands. Buried in the headlines is the future of the Nile River — and thus the fate ofEgypt itself.

Mubarak long neglected the security danger posed by other nations’ claims to the timeless pulse that provides 95% of this desert country’s water, without which its delta farmlands would wither and its economy die. As poor African capitals increasingly challenge Cairo, however, the struggle has become one of the most pressing foreign policy tests for Egypt’s new president, Mohamed Morsi.

African countries at the river’s source, notably Ethiopia, no longer feel bound by colonial-era agreements on water rights and are moving to siphon away larger shares of water for electricity, irrigation and business to meet demands of burgeoning populations.

It is a skirmish involving diplomats, engineers and veiled threats of war over geography’s blessings and slights and how nations in a new century will divvy up a river on whose banks civilizations have risen and tumbled.

“All of Egyptian life is based on the Nile. Without it there is nothing,” said Moujahed Achouri, the representative for theUnited Nations‘ Food and Agricultural Organization in Egypt.

Morsi’s acknowledgment of the water crisis and his desire to reach a compromise to protect his country’s strategic and historical claim is evident: The Islamist leader has visited key Nile countries twice since his inauguration in June, and his prime minister, Hesham Kandil, is a former water and irrigation minister with connections to officials in African governments. An Egyptian delegation recently toured the region, listening to how Cairo might help build hospitals and schools in villages and jungles.

An advisor to the president quoted in Al Ahram Weekly said this of Morsi: “The man was shocked when he received a review about the state of ties we have with Nile basin countries. The previous regime should be tried for overlooking such a strategic interest.”

For decades, Egypt had concentrated on problems closer to home, including keeping the Arab-Israeli peace and tending to wars from Lebanon to Iraq. Mubarak, who survived a 1995 assassination attempt by Islamic extremists in the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa, had paid little attention to East Africa. But his regime was adamant — at one point hinting at military action — in preserving the existing Nile treaties.

That echoed a warning from his predecessor, President Anwar Sadat, in 1979: “The only matter that could take Egypt to war again is water.”

In a 1929 treaty and through other pacts, Egypt and its southern neighbor, Sudan, were granted the bulk of the Nile’s flow. The logic — filtered through decades of politics and power struggles — was that Egypt could not survive without the river. Nile basin countries, including Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania, have seasonal rains and other water sources.

But economic pressure and increasing demand for energy and development have turned African countries’ attention to the Nile. Since 2010, Ethiopia, which now gets only 3% of its water from the Nile, and five other upstream countries have indicated they would divert more water and no longer honor Egypt’s veto power over building projects on the river.

The biggest challenge to Cairo is the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam. Experts estimate that the hydropower project, which is under construction and is expected to cost at least $4.8 billion, could reduce the river’s flow to Egypt by as much as 25% during the three years it would take to fill the reservoir behind the dam. The project faces a number of potential setbacks and lost its biggest proponent when Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi died in August.

Ethiopia has sought to reassure Cairo that Egypt’s annual share of 55.5 billion cubic meters of Nile water — about two-thirds of the river’s flow — will not be disrupted and that the new dam may provide low-cost electricity to its neighbors. But the Egyptians are suspicious.

“Egypt has entered a stage where its resources are depleting and population is rapidly increasing,” said Hani Raslan, an expert on the Nile basin for Al Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies in Cairo. “If the dam is complete … this will mean Ethiopia will turn into an enemy for Egypt because it will essentially threaten the country’s safety, development and livelihood of its people.”

He added, “Egypt would legally have the right to defend itself by going to war.”

The struggle over the river highlights decades of strained relations. Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni was quoted as saying before Morsi’s visit in October: “Despite the Nile River supporting livelihoods of millions of Egyptians from the ancient times to date, none of the country’s presidents has ever visited Uganda to see the source of this lifeline.”

Egypt and the other Nile nations are seeking to calm the rhetoric.

Officials say a resolution may include Cairo entering into long-term economic and energy resource agreements with neighboring capitals. The Egyptian delegation that recently toured the region included doctors and representatives of food banks, hospitals and charities.

Egypt, however, faces deep economic problems and is trying to attract foreign investment, which dropped sharply during last year’s uprising and ensuing political unrest.

“Morsi is trying to send signals to the African world that Egypt is opening up now, that he wants to improve relations and increase cooperation,” Raslan said. Morsi’s visits to Africa “are all just gestures.”

“No real agreements have been reached yet,” he said. “More needs to be done. Egypt wants and needs to reach its influence in the region.”

The essence of the Nile conflict is poor nations — Egypt and Ethiopia — needing the river for similar reasons. Ethiopia, which has experienced strong economic growth in recent years, wants to boost electricity output while spurring agriculture and development. Those needs also resonate to the north, but Egypt, which has no other water source, faces more dire prospects.

The crisis is certain to force Egypt, where regulations are tangled in bureaucracy and often ignored, to improve water conservation among the nearly 30% of its population that depends on farming for its livelihood. Much of the Nile Delta is made up of small family farms that for centuries have grown wheat, corn and rice with little environmental concern. This attitude and a growing population, which may jump from 82 million to 150 million by 2050, have put further strains on the river.

“Water policies in Egypt have to be long-range,” said Achouri, the U.N. official. “If you want farmers to stop using too much water for irrigation, alternatives and other incentives should be made available to them. Farmers right now cannot make a living without the Nile.”

A possible solution is rotating away from water-intensive crops, such as rice, and shifting to increased wheat production. Egypt, where the word “bread” also means “life,” is the world’s No. 1 importer of wheat. Agricultural experts say reducing rice production while increasing wheat yields would conserve water and meet the country’s food needs.

Such a scenario may be forced upon farmers if the Nile’s flow is curtailed and irrigation canals become parched. Egypt’s water and irrigation minister, Mohamed Bahaa El Din Saad, said recently that overpopulation, farming and other water uses have left the country with a “water deficit” of billions of gallons.

“More than 90% of the water for Egypt’s 90 million people is coming in from the Nile,” Achouri said. “The only way out is for more efficient use.”

Apocalyptic dams in China and Ethiopia are drying lakes and causing drought

 

The direct effect the Chinese tree Gorge Dams is  drought, land sliding, and drying of  lakes. This will be the best warning for the Ethiopian Dam rug Melse Zenawie from stopping to dam the Nile  and the Omo rivers with consequences of drying Lake Tana and Turkana. Nile its source is the Lake Tana the only life giving lake  to Egypt, while Omo is the life line for Lake Turkana in Kenya.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DIpmfKkbizQ&feature=player_detailpage

Poyang Lake just months ago but now is a dry ocean of green grass because of China’s worst drought in decades the main culprit is the three Gorge dams, soon the same will be for Lake Tana in Ethiopia and Turkana in Kenya due the Death Dams of the Nile and Omo rivers constructed with the help the China.

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Yangtze River Water Levels Drop par NewsLook——–

As that of  Poyang shrinks to a tenth its usual size, crops wither and millions of people go thirsty, critics point to the gargantuan Three Gorges Dam as one cause, making it a symbol of the risks of the country’s dream of Mega dams not only in China but  also in the drought stricken Horn of Africa.

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Many villagers environmental   scientists suspect the dam not only withholds water from the Yangtze River downstream, but could also be altering weather patterns, contributing to the lowest rainfall some areas have seen in a half-century or more.  The same type of  drought due to the Gibe I,II,III dams  has rekindle a tribal war in Lake Turkana region of Ethiopia and Kenya.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h5wQq8JnHUY&feature=player_detailpage

 

The Chinese government  in the opposite to its Ethiopian counterpart , though in the beginning denies that Three Gorges can cause droughts but has acknowledged some of its environmental problems in a debate that highlights China’s reliance on such showcase projects to sustain its economic boom.

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The Three Gorges Dam,  like the Ethiopian coming  Nile Millennium & gibe III Dams, is the world’s biggest hydroelectric plant is  a way to control flooding along the Yangtze and generate massive power for the country’s ravenous industries.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mpjmDal30L0&feature=player_detailpage

The government already has used up 80 percent of the reserves in the 410-mile-long (660-kilometer-long) reservoir by releasing extra water to relieve drought conditions downstream. When it comes  to the future Ethiopian Nile & Omo Dam planed in the image of the Three Gorges Dam will dry up the two rivers  irreversibly.

The Yangtze’s levels have fallen enough to threaten shipping both upstream and downstream as far as Shanghai, where high salt tides threaten drinking water supplies for its 23 million residents. Once the Ethiopian Millennium Dam is over the Sudanese  and Egyptian must prepare to use another means of transport since the Nile will cease to Exist if any Egypt is left without the Nile.

 

The dam rather than producing great energy as dreamed by the Chinese engineers the  waning hydroelectric capacity are expected to deepen in the hottest days of summer. If it continues at the present rhythm many farmers have to  abandon their dried ponds and fields, prices for food are surging, defying Beijing’s efforts to bring down already stubbornly high inflation. Today China Luks  water to sustain its 1.3 billion people. The Three gorge dams  seems  accelerating the  end of  China’s high growth since the government has exhausted  its natural  environmental reserve to fall back .

The Chinese State Council admitted that  the $23 billion Three Gorges project has caused a slew of environmental, geologic and economic problems. Urgent action is needed to reduce risks of natural disasters such as landslides and alleviate poverty among the 1.4 million people forced to relocate, while their new won satellite state of Ethiopia led by Melse Zenawie  refused to recognize the resent drought in Turkana region is caused by the Gibe dams of Omo river.

More and more Chinese farmers and fisherman’s in the lake Poyang  and around the country that the dam  causes drought. China’s leaders like their Ethiopian counterpart are very sensitive when one criticizes their Megalomaniac Death Dams. People’s Daily like most of the Ethiopians state run Journals recently declared that – “No evidence supports the theory that the Three Gorges causes droughts.”

Dam can altering the humidity of an area  and affect local rainfall . According  to Kenneth Pomeranz,  the University of California’s  specialist on the Chinese Water’s conclusion on the  Apocalyptic three  Gorge  Dams  as a  “big Rube Goldberg contraption.”

Get the Flash Player to see the wordTube Media Player.

“All the pieces have to work or you’ve got big problems. Obviously one of those pieces is that you have to have guessed right about the water supply in the Yangtze basin. If it doesn’t have as much water as was thought, you have to give it up.

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Like 6650 km long Nile, to Sudan and Egypt, Yangtze the 6,300 km waterway provides  about a fifth of China’s economic activity and two-thirds of its inland shipping. Since Three Apocalyptic Three Gorge Dams  completion, the region around Poyang Lake has dried out. With the completion of the Ethiopian Millennium Death Dams not only Ethiopia but Egypt and Sudan will revive the Biblical Famine due to the coming unfrequented droughts.

 

According to Jacques Leslie building dams around the Equator will disequilibrate the earth’s magnetic tilt in his recent conferences. The Ethiopian Dictator must be stopped before he does un reparable damage to the planets magnetic equilibrium.
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Thumbnail4:35Water Troubles Along the Nile

Activists are Mobilizing around the world against the Ethiopian “Death dams”

 

Our efforts to stop the Ethiopian Dictatorial Death Dams have started giving fruits internationally while in Ethiopia it is in the very embryonic state.

Recently the Chileans struggle to stop the damming the Andes- Patagonia and that of the Turkish anti dam revolt have given a hope to the people of the horn of Africa. In Kenya the manifestation against the dams is permitted officially while in Ethiopia it a crime against the regime of   Melese Zenawie, nobody even consider criticizing   rather than blindly supporting his megalomaniac Dams of destructions. China after destroying the region of the three dams has come to destroy the only sources of live water in Easter Africa by proposing and financing these death dams to Ethiopian dictator. Resistance is coming from around the world to resisting these destructive dams.

Here is the a recent article on CBS world watch on the Negative effect of the damming in Ethiopia written by Celia Hatton of CBS  which reads as follows:-

“It’s a story that truly spans the globe: Activists from all over the world, including San Francisco, are trying to stop the construction of a dam in Ethiopia financed by a Chinese bank.

The Gibe 3 Dam is in the early phases of construction on Ethiopia’s powerful Omo River, using
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Nile has become an arm for Melese’s Zneawie’s “Millennium Death Dam” against Sudan and Egypt

The Ethiopian dictator covered under the umbrella of the Social Tsunami that engulfed  the Arabic world especially Egypt lunched in human Dam constructions which will completely dry up the Nile river. According to the Ethiopian dictator Melese Zenawie the most gigantic dam will be built on the Nile which will cease the Nile from flowing to Egypt permanently.  This will create artificial lake two times more than the actual size of Lake Tana which over 200KM wide.  This is a dictatorial night mare of the new horn of Africa’s Water Emperor.  Such gigantic dam will provoke stop definitively the annual flood of the Nile which the Egyptian farmers ritually wait every year for their farm since for the last 13’000 years. Such  an  inhuman dam not only destroy the environment definitively  but also will risk the population of  Khartoum and Cairo due  in an expected earth quake on the  volcanic highland plateau of the Horn of Africa. The region is stated on the two active moving plates on the moves permanently to create the news ocean of the world.

Melese Zenawi Death Millennium Dam will collapse  and risk down stream riparians on the  coming   minimum movement of the Eastern Africa Plates:

[stream provider=youtube flv=http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3DEgG2J3DoIYQ img=x:/img.youtube.com/vi/EgG2J3DoIYQ/0.jpg embed=false share=false width=640 height=360 dock=true controlbar=over bandwidth=high autostart=false /]

[stream provider=youtube flv=http%3A//www.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3DhbWUhuL4LEM img=x:/img.youtube.com/vi/hbWUhuL4LEM/0.jpg embed=false share=false width=640 height=360 dock=true controlbar=over bandwidth=high autostart=false /]

Yesterday the Afar region was taken by an Earth Quake:-

httpvh://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K6sCcVT8tK0

On March 31 st Magnitude 4.6 – ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION

Magnitude4.6
Date-Time
  • Thursday, March 31, 2011 at 18:33:37 UTC
  • Thursday, March 31, 2011 at 09:33:37 PM at epicenter
  • Time of Earthquake in other Time Zones
Location13.129°N, 41.892°E
Depth3.2 km (2.0 miles) (poorly constrained)
RegionERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
Distances
  • 92 km (57 miles) W (279°) from Assab, Eritrea
  • 218 km (136 miles) NW (321°) from DJIBOUTI, Djibouti
  • 222 km (138 miles) SSW (212°) from Al Hudaydah, Yemen
Location Uncertaintyhorizontal +/- 11.9 km (7.4 miles); depth +/- 46.5 km (28.9 miles)
ParametersNST= 31, Nph= 31, Dmin=314 km, Rmss=0.93 sec, Gp=122°,
M-type=body wave magnitude (Mb), Version=5
Source
  • USGS NEIC (WDCS-D)
Event IDus2011jdbx

Melese Zenawie fearing the coming social Tsunami that took Hosni Mubarak tries to deter the attention of the Ethiopians with a new conflict with Egypt. His recent declaration to take over Eritrea did not change the position of the Ethiopian against his regime. The recent intervention in Somalia to fight Al Qaida like his friend in Libya Gaddafi did not have any world attention to him too. The dictator not only in the Nile he is caught in the whirlwind of dam constructions even in the most fragile rift valley of the Omo River.  It is a high time to stop such mad man from committing in human catastrophe in the region which is comparable or worth than the resent Japanese Tsunami and earth Quake, by inundating Khartoum and Cairo. In the first phase the dame will cease the flow of the Nile for more than three or four years the time to fill the gigantic dam. This will suck all the water from Lake Tana.  In the 2nd phase any movement in the Eastern Africa plates will create will bust the dame risking the lives of millions in downstream cities like Khartoum, Cairo… by artificial flood wiping out everything down river.

The world body must intervene to stop the water dictator from creating artificial catastrophe by the Ethiopian mad man Melese Zenawie who lost his brain in the most fragile part of the world. His main objective is to sell maximum of land for the grabbers by promising them water for irrigation. Such irrigation will stop the flow of the river definitively.

httpvh://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gQrHM5KexZM

httpvh://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Wj44-9mT9s

Great Millennium Nile Dam/ታላቁ የሚሊኒየም ግድብ

4 min – 1 day ago – Uploaded by lovenium
Ethiopia to construct the Great Millennium Nile Dam with an estimated cost of 80 billion Birr. Ethiopian Government would fully 

MOT 1935: Animated MAP OF ETHIOPIANile

1 Jan 2007
MOT 1935: Animated MAP OF ETHIOPIANile River highlighted. Proposed dam just SE of Lake Tana.

Nile Conflict: Ethiopia vs Egypt (ኢትዮጵያ ፀረ ግብጽ 

4 min – 16 Jan 2011 – Uploaded by EthioArbenya
Meles Zenawi warns Egypt off Nile war ADDIS ABABA (Reuters) — Egypt could not win a war with Ethiopia over the River Nile

The Nile – Ethiopia & Egypt 5/5

7 min – 14 Mar 2010 – Uploaded by Axumite Empire

Nile in Egypt runs in Ethiopia, water wars, Egypt 

8 min – 28 May 2010 – Uploaded by baymillermom
Israel news clip that says Nile river runs from Egypt ,Sudan down toEthiopiaEthiopia has more of Nile in its country but 

NILE DEBATE EMPHASIZES CONSERVATION, WATER SHARING (East African Form)

MARCH 30, 2011

 

YEHEYES WUHIB

“President Anwar Sadat once famously threatened Ethiopia with war if Addis Ababa diverted water out of the Nile basin into other areas of Ethiopia.”

Professor Richard Tutwiler of the American University in Cairo says potential projects in Ethiopia and Sudan could help preserve Nile waters

THE NILE RIVER IS A MAIN SOURCE OF WATER FOR MANY COUNTRIES

The Nile is the world’s longest river, spanning a distance of almost 6,600 kilometers.

It is formed from the White Nile, which originates in the Great Lakes region of central Africa, and the Blue Nile, which begins at Lake Tana in Ethiopia. The two rivers meet in Sudan and travel northwards, flowing through Egypt and seven upstream countries before finally emptying into the Mediterranean Sea.

Water use issues have long been a source of contention among the Nile Basin countries, who disagree on what is an equitable distribution of the river’s waters. For decades the answer to that question has been determined by an agreement that’s recently re-negotiated and that could alter the historic water-sharing arrangements for the Nile.

Entitled the Cooperative Framework Agreement, it was signed in late February by Burundi, which joins other countries — Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Rwanda – that are seeking what they consider a more equitable share of the river waters.

Egypt, Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo are still mulling over the framework’s provisions.

The accord was prepared during 11 years of negotiations among nine of the 10 countries in the basin. Eritrea did not participate directly in these negotiations but did serve as an observer. Last May, the document was put forward for signature by the participating governments.

Richard N. Tutwiler, a research professor and director of the Desert Development Center at the American University in Cairo, says with Burundi’s signing, the countries can move on to ratification.

ARTICLE 14B

After the sixth signature, says Tutwiler, the agreement stipulates the formation of a commission among the Nile Valley countries to review water control projects along the river basin.

World Bank (Arne Hoel)
FISHERMAN ON THE WHITE NILE (MORADA). KHARTOUM, SUDAN.

“We can expect things might start happening in terms of this commission as early as May of this year,” says Tutwiler.

Egypt and Sudan have reservations about the cooperative framework agreement. “In particular,” says Professor Tutwiler, “article 14 of the agreement is very much in dispute,” especially between downstream countries, Egypt and Sudan, and the other countries.

The issue is water security.

Article 14b does not recognize the historic right of Egypt to 55.5 billion cubic meters of the Nile’s waters, as did the 1959 treaty.

“[Egypt does not] have the power to turn on or turn off the tap of the Nile,” says Tutwiler. “So it is important to point out that Egypt has been lobbying very hard at the negotiating table and with international bodies to define water security so as to maintain the same amount of water it is receiving now and looking to the future as it moves forward.”

RULES OF RATIFICATION

Professor Tutwiler says ratification is a two stage process. Once governments sign the treaty, it must be ratified by the legislature. Out of the nine Nile basin countries, six have signed.

VOA – E. Arrott
IN EGYPT THE NILE HAS ALLOWED AGRICULTURE TO FLOURISH FOR MILLENIA.

Egypt and Sudan have announced they don’t intend to sign the present document in its present form. The DRC is still undecided, but most people think it will sign by May, which, according to Tutwiler, “is the one-year period for signature from the time the document was introduced.”

In the second stage, national legislatures must ratify the agreement. For each country, the process is slightly different, says Tutwiler.

“The idea is if six countries ratify, at least [in those countries] the agreement becomes the legislative law in operation. In other words, among the ratifying countries, they have agreed that it will be a governing document for relations among themselves in terms of cooperation regarding water use,” explains Tutwiler.

“As far as Egypt is concerned,” Tutwiler says, “it does not agree, [even though] if six signed, by default it is bound by the agreement.”

But according to al-Ahram Weekly, Egypt’s assistant foreign minister for African Affairs, Mona Omar, said the new accord is non-binding because Egypt has not signed. An official spokesman for the Egyptian Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources, Essam Khalifa, says the issue can be amicably resolved “with a little bit of understanding regarding the needs of the conflicting parties.”

NILE RIVER TREATIES

The treaty of 1929, between Egypt and then-colonial power Britain, was among the first to govern waters in international river basins. It gave Egypt permission to build whatever projects it liked along the Nile without the consent of other parties, while allowing Cairo to veto up-stream projects that could threaten its share of water.

NILE WATERS FROM ETHIOPIA HELP SUSTAIN EGYPTIAN LIVESTOCK

But Tutwiler points out that post-colonial governments do not recognize it as binding. Tutwiler says the 1959 treaty is recognized as definitive. It guaranteed Egypt 55.5 billion cubic meters of water per year, and Sudan 18.5 billion. The treaty was used as the basis for the agreement between Khartoum and Cairo to build the Aswan dam, which flooded a large part of northern Sudan.

He says none of the upstream countries, such as Uganda, Tanzania, or Ethiopia, recognize the 1929 agreement as valid.

WATER WARS

President Anwar Sadat once famously threatened Ethiopia with war if it diverted water out of the Nile Basin into other areas of Ethiopia. Tutwiler says, “By and large Ethiopia has not done that, although they have talked about it and have various projects on the drawing board.”


PRESIDENT ANWAR SADAT

But Tutwiler says Egypt has. “Egypt has taken water out of the Nile and put it across the Suez Canal and into the Sinai, which is not geographically speaking part of the Nile Basin,” he says.

“Ethiopia was very quick to point that out. This was almost 40 years ago, and not since Sadat has Egypt ever threatened Ethiopia in the same way with military action,” she says.

The difficulty of taking military action within the Nile Basin very much work against any real military action, says Tutweiler. Much of the terrain is harsh and Egypt is limited in the reach of its air power. But he says there’s room for recourse to diplomatic and economic actions and solutions.

FOCUS ON SUDAN

Tutwiler says many observers are watching Sudan.

In January, southern Sudanese voted for independence. “The creation of a new southern Sudan state changes the whole equation,” Tutwiler says. So far, the government of southern Sudan has not actually articulated a Nile Basin policy.

Most observers assume that southern Sudan would not want to give up any water that passes through its territory.

A proposed canal could mitigate Nile waters lost in the swamps of southern Sudan

According to Tutwiler, one of the major historical issues regarding Sudan has been a project first proposed by the British in 1904 to build a very long canal in southern Sudan. The world’s largest fresh water swamp is in southern Sudan and half of the Nile water flows from equatorial Africa into that swamp and, he says, “evaporates before it can move on northward to the White Nile.”

The idea of the project is to dig a canal called the Jongeli Canal around the swamp to divert the water flowing to the swamp into the canal. Tutwiler says the project could save up to eight million cubic meters of water from evaporation that could then be used in northern Sudan and on into Egypt.

“Egypt of course would like to have the canal built. They have already started discussion with north and south Sudan on the issue,” Tutwiler says.

So far, the southern Sudanese are not saying they are for it or against it. For now they say it is not a major priority for them because they have a nation to build.

“But one suspects that they would not like to divert that water from the swamp, because in fact southern Sudanese people who live there depend on the swamp for much of their livelihood,” says Tutwiler.

“These people are cattle herders and they need the water. The swamps provide grazing land. If the swamps were to be drained,” Tutwiler says, “those people would suffer economically.”

Southern Sudanese seem not to be interested in pursuing the project and, according to Tutwiler, it might cause problems between them and the northern Sudanese, allied with Egypt.

FUTURE OF THE NILE

Tutwiler says Egyptians are always worried about the future of the Nile, the country’s main supply of fresh water.

“Egyptian concerns are real and well founded,” says Tutwiler. He adds that Cairo’s position for now will be to focus on the question of water security, which is the bone of contention in the current draft agreement.

As far as the states in the region are concerned they will try to persuade the Egyptians that they are also committed to the notion of equitable use of the Nile waters.

THE NILE SUPPORTS EGYPT’S VITAL FISHING INDUSTRY

Egypt is focused on maintaining the current arrangement.

“Their position essentially is, ‘If you leave us to keep 55.5 billion cubic meters of water, we will live within that envelope.’” Tutwiler says, “That will not be easy for the Egyptians because every year the population grows. In fact, every three weeks there is another 100 thousand net gain in the population and the water stays the same,” asserts Tutwiler.

WATER SCARCITY

The United Nations says water scarcity exists when a country goes below the national average of 1000 cubic meters per person per year. Egypt needs 80 billion cubic meters of water a year just to avoid water scarcity. Tutwiler says, “Egypt has long passed that threshold because it doesn’t have anywhere near that amount of water for 80 million people.”

Tutwiler says Egypt is making what he calls an admirable effort to develop a strategy to conserve and recycle water and live within its means.

REUTERS
THE UN SAYS A COUNTRY IS EXPERIENCING WATER SCARCITY IF ITS PEOPLE RECEIVE BELOW 1000 CUBIC METERS PER PERSON PER YEAR.

“I think the other countries will probably try to persuade Egypt that whatever specific project that are being proposed will not substantially harm Egypt’s interests, and this I think will be what they will try to say to keep the Egyptians involved in the discussions as cooperators and partners in the basin,” says Tutwiler.

He adds that the Egyptians are willing to discuss those issues in good faith but still are going to think in terms of a kind of bottom line, which is their water security.

ETHIOPIA’S BLUE NILE

Eighty percent of the Blue Nile flows from Ethiopia and reaches the Aswan Dam on the border of Egypt and Sudan. Ethiopia is the key as far as Egypt is concerned

Lately, Ethiopia has undertaken an ambitious program of dam construction in parts of the Nile basin located in its territory. The country has a deficit of power, and most of these dams produce electricity, although some have small irrigation components.

ASSOCIATED PRESS
HYDROPOWER AND WATERS FOR IRRIGATION FROM THE NILE COULD HELP DEVELOP RURAL ETHIOPIA

Some studies indicate that properly managed hydro-power dams in Ethiopia could benefit Egypt with more water. “You cannot generate electricity in a hydro-dam unless you let the water through the dam,” explains Tutwiler.

“Secondly,” Tutwiler says, “if you build up a head [of stored water behind the dam] to generate electricity, then in effect you are storing water in Ethiopia where you don’t have nearly as much evaporation as you would in Lake Nasser in the Sahara desert in Egypt and northern Sudan.”

The Blue Nile in Ethiopia is a seasonal river. Most of the water accumulates in the monsoon season between June and September. “By building hydro dams Tutwiler says, “You can actually reduce the effects of flooding and even out the water flow throughout the year.”

This in turn benefits Egypt in terms of the amount of water it can use. According to Tutwiler, it is a kind of ecological balance between, hot season, rainy season, cooler temperatures and hotter temperatures.

WHAT TO DO

“There are many technical solutions as well as developmental projects that can be implemented to improve the ecological balance of the Nile basin,” says Tutwiler.

In the case of Egypt, there is much that can be done to save and reuse water. Tutwiler says Egyptians are actually very much in line with improving their water use efficiently.

Upstream, where the water is generated by rainfall, it’s a different story.

In Ethiopia Tutwiler says, “The watersheds over the last hundred years have suffered a great deal of degradation primarily to deforestation and bad agricultural practices that have created more erosion.”

Tutwiler says the Ethiopian National Water Resources Management Plan has adopted a strategy to try to revitalize a lot of the watershed eco-system so more water can be retained in the soil and in the geology of the Ethiopian highlands.

This would ultimately benefit the downstream countries, because more water would be saved in an ecological and environmentally friendly way with less water lost to run-off or evaporation.

THE CHINA CONNECTION

Tutwiler says politics are changing for the Nile countries. He says as in other African countries, many Nile nations are becoming more stable, and gaining more control over their national territory.

“Ethiopia is a good case in point,” says Tutwiler. “Since the 1970s, after the fall of Emperor Haile Selassie, we had prolonged civil wars and instability, and now for almost 20 odd years Ethiopia has had relative stability.

The country is starting to develop. With all these projects in Ethiopia, such as hydro-power plants, the electricity grid extending outwards, water and sanitation improving, society seems to be progressing economically, though maybe not as fast as they should.”

Tutwiler says, “It is the same in Uganda. The country went through a long period of instability and is now starting to firm up and to make progress.”

He says there’s also a great deal of international interest in foreign investment in the Nile basin region today.

Tutwiler says one of the big players in the Nile basin is China, which is helping finance and build dams in Sudan and Ethiopia.

“Previously,” Tutwiler says, “these large dam projects could only be refinanced through institutions like the World Bank. The World Bank used to use its policy to mediate among competing interests in the basin. Now all that has been replaced by the Chinese.”

11:03

Ethiopian Millennium Hydroelectric Project Report

Breaking  Death Dams

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Millennium Dam will break in the following wise:- Let us learn and stop damming

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Nile river at the mercy of a dictatorial dam expected to dry by impoundment risking millions in Egypt

The  genocidal Dictator Melese Zenawie started his construction of the long waited  Megalomaniac dams at the expense of  Ethiopian inhabitants and its environment with  the rest of the riparian states. Especially Egypt,  a country in  full uprising  since the 25th of January 2011 against the three decade Ethiopian type  dictator and almost   60 years military rule. The Ethiopian dictator benefiting Egyptians internal crisis is rushing  to build his destructive dams. These dams are mainly for the land grabbers and enrichment of the dictator and his equip. The local and regional population needs a human level construction to secure the continual flow of  waters,  the save guard of their human and natural  environment.

The New Massive Dam is being constructed by the Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation in Benishangul state, very close to the Sudanese border. Sudan and Egypt the traditional stake  holders are  immediately concerned as water of  the Nile waters dwindling  by megalomaniac dams.  These  countries are today caught in the internal convolutions. Sudan is taken by internal division and secession while Egypt is consumed by revolution.

The megalomaniac destructive dam on the Blue Nile construction has been awarded to the same Italian construction company that built the Gilgel Gibe II and Tana Beles dams Salini Costruttori SPA.  The Ethiopian dictator has been criticized   awarding the projects without a competitive national tender, in violation of its own procurement guidelines.  The company has already begun deploying heavy construction machinery to the site to start the project. The so called  “project x”  power plant will have an electric generation capacity of 6,000MW, which has any utility for the  imitate use local population except the multinational foreign land grabbers, and to increase the dictators financial  resources to maintain power in Ethiopia at the expense  environmental destruction and provocation of  water shortage in riparian countries.  The Dictatorial regime have forcedly displaced the local population of the region in order not have resistance and immediate revolt th hand to build these deadly dams.

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The dam is expected to take at least five years to be completed,  in the these period of time  the Ethiopian  dictator   will surely  not be there to celibate the end of the project.

The genocidal dictator  has already three other power plants, which have been under construction in the past few years waiting to be finished  before the fall of the regime following the northern Africa uprising  which will soon swipe Ethiopia.

Ethiopian dictator dreams to become an African powerhouse due to its high hydropower potential. However,   the highland is situated on volatile volcanic moving tectonic plates. Building a dam in the highland plateau will endanger the lives of millions in down river countries with a disastrous effect to its local inhabitants.

The dictator  2009 declare that the less than 10 percent of Ethiopians had access to electricity and the country is  plagued by power outages. The genocidal dictator used the pretext of the countries power shortage kindled by his own blackouts to get support for his megalomaniac schemes. Ethiopia is a  country which is not  embarked  industrialization does not need such amount of electric power.  Over 85 % the population is traditional farmers struggling   to survive. They can develop alternative and environment friendly project with less than the quarter of the money spend in these projects. The irredentist dictator is using the pretext  of  water  power  and famine  for its own end to control the impoverished Ethiopians.

The successful completion of this dams  is hoped to support the project of land grabbers in  areas where the population is  displaced areas to produce   to 8,000 MW from the current rate of 2000 MW. Ethiopian dictator is planning to control the livelihood of  countries of the region by his massive killer  dams.

According to the dictator  the benefits of the dams are not limited to hydro power, many dams are multi-purpose dams that are also designed to provide water for irrigation and flood control.

The dictator is building all Ethiopia’s power plants in the two main rivers of the Horn of Africa the Nile and the Omo River basin the home of many traditional societies, where their entire livelihood depends on them. Furthermore, both rivers are shared with Ethiopia’s neighbors and for none of them an international water sharing agreement exists were not signed in pre or post colonial, except the Nile.  However, Ethiopian dictatorial regime  is not a constructive participant in the Nile Basin Initiative.  It wen even far by  declaring  recently war against Egypt  just before 25 January revolt in Cairo.

The dictator is warned by the environmentalist that  hydropower impoundment  reduces water  flow for a prolonged period if not permanently, since Ethiopia is located in highland volcanic crater with  hundreds  of underground  volcanic tunnels  where  water infiltration is evident.   In Ethiopia   evaporation from the reservoir surfaces constitutes a permanent loss of water from the river though it is less than downstream in Egypt and Sudan.  The worst is the irrigation which consumes water in quantities for newly grabbed commercial farms. Thus making it unavailable for  downstream population in Egypt, Kenya and Sudan.

The Ethiopia  has no agreement with Egypt or Sudan about the sharing of the Nile’s water, but has an international  and local responsibilities not to abuse water resources for multinational companies that their only objective is to increase their  benefit from their investment in the Land Grapping . Egypt says that its historic water rights would be violated by dams in Ethiopia and that its water security would be affected one way another by such dams in pre revolutionary period. The dictator’s response is ready to go to war than negotiate. Egypt and Sudan concluded a water sharing treaty in 1959. The agreement does not consider the water rights of other Nile riparian states and has never been recognized by Ethiopia.  The dams will reduce the flow of water to Sudan and Egypt permanently. And will stop the traditional flooding for Egyptian traditional farmers in the Nile. And will destroy the Omotic population in Southern Ethiopia. In Kenya the Lake Turkana will cease to exist by creating unnecessary drought which we have started  to show its effect recently  in northern Kenya.

In one of  recent  studies, assuming an evaporation rate of one meter per year, an irrigated area of 200,000 hectares and a combined reservoir area of 1,000 square kilometers, the flow of the Nile could be reduced by three billion cubic meters per year, equivalent to about 5 percent of the current allocation of Egypt under the 1959 agreement. But Ethiopia has sold and selling  millions of hectares to the land grabber which will reduce the water which crosses the high land plateau to zero.

The Omo River flowing to  Kenya has been expressed concerns about downstream impacts on Lake Turkana eventually even drying due to direct impact of the upstream  dams.  The most prominent environmental organizations like Friends of Lake Turkana and International Rivers challenged the project in terms of its ecological destruction. The Doctor Richard Leaky    the known paleoanthropologist have taken a strong stand against the damming the river OMO by demonstrating its negative effects in the totality of the regional ecosystem.

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Nile the only Dwindling water suplay is menaced & controlled by an East African Dictator Zenawie

The recent war declaration of the Ethiopian dictator Melese Zenawie has menaced the Egypt’s water needs that will surpass its resources by 2017 if the current population 76 million continues to grow with the same rate. In the same year the country would need 86.2 billion cubic meters of water while resources would be only 71.4 billion cubic meters. The Nile is expected to supply only 80.5 percent of this Egyptian resource. This is only if Ethiopia which supplies 87% of the water did not use or divert the water or build any dam at the same time as menaced by the Ethiopian dictator. But in 2006 Egypt’s water resources stood at 64 billion cubic meters, of which the River Nile provided 55.5 billion cubic meters, or 86.7 %.  As we know Egypt is heavily dependent on river water as it has little rainfall. Agriculture accounted for 83.3 percent of water consumption in Egypt today.

Today’s Egypt’s water supply is equivalent to an allocation of 860 cubic meters per capita per year, well below the water poverty line of 1,000 cubic meters per capita a year.

The Egyptian water allocation would also fall to 582 cubic meters per capita per year by 2017 if action was not taken to reverse the downward trend which is highly menaced by construct6ion dams and irrigation in the upper plateau of Ethiopia by the genocidal dictator of the country Melese Zenawie and the rest other riparian states as influenced by him in their recent singed pact.

The today highly contested by Nile basin countries 1929 agreement between Egypt and Britain, acting on behalf of its then east African colonies, gave Cairo the right to veto projects higher up the Nile that would affect its water share.

The secondly rejected 1959 accord between Egypt and Sudan, supplementing the previous agreement, gave Egypt the right to 55.5 billion cubic meters of Nile water a year.

The agreements have created resentment among other Nile states and calls for changes to the pact, resisted by Egypt.

The colonial pact Egypt’s “permanent” quota of Nile water is estimated at 55.5 billion square meters.  The fast growing Egyptian and Eastern African population growth in the coming two decades will aggravate the existing   crisis.  In the coming two decades the population of Egypt is expected to reach 100 million while and that of Ethiopia over 120 million. Under current climatic conditions and the continuous damming in Ethiopia the increasing the water quota for Egypt is impossible.

Egypt rejects the Cooperative Framework Agreement (CFA) signed in Entebbe, Uganda in May last year. Four countries (Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania and Rwanda) signed the CFA while Kenya joined signed up later as a declaration of war to her water supply.

Egypt and Sudan have refused to join. Other countries which did not sign are Burundi and Democratic Congo. Recently Burundi seems favoring Egypt while Ethiopia declares the coming water war.

The CFA does not specify exact water quotas for Nile Basin countries; it voids the agreements of 1929 and 1959 and allows each Nile Basin country to meet its needs for river water without harming other states. There is no way each country to meet their individual needs without harming Egypt which is at the end of the line for water supply.

The agreement also allows the commission, headquartered in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and comprised of representatives from all nine Nile Basin countries, to approve or reject proposals for water projects on the Nile. But Ethiopia continues to build dams without the approval of any of the member states voiding the existence of the pact.

Egypt helplessly trying to assure the agreements dating back to the 1890s and uphold single handedly.  These are agreements which are in the past backed by international law and precedent, most notably the agreements of 1929 and 1959, but are rejected by the new agreement which is leading to the coming water war between Egypt and the rest of the riparian states.

The water security is now highly menaced.  The signing the CFA by the riparian countries have created a complicated political situation, which is leading to a water crisis leading to UN expected war to explode any time.

Egypt   start blaming a foreign interference in the issue of the Nile Basin in her recent declaration, in the following wise:-

“We do not and will not allow any outside party to manipulate the current situation and spoil relations; we are very conscious …that an international river cannot be managed by one country (Ethiopia) alone… Accordingly, we will protect our quota and our water security…

The general coordinator for Nile Basin affairs in Egypt’s foreign ministry identifies cooperation with other Nile Basin countries as the way to any resolution on how to share the river’s water

Many of the Nile Basin states which disagree with Egypt, especially Ethiopia, threaten the looming prospect of projects funded by the World Bank such as the construction of dams which could affect Egypt’s quota of Nile water.

“The World Bank has rules about pre-notification,” he explained. “Accordingly, all the countries must approve any project related to the river, and all the banks in the world, as well as economic and investment funds practice the same rules.

“Egypt is closely following developments on this issue everywhere in the world, and we have no objection to investments. In fact, we encourage them, participate and talk to donors candidly. We are adamant that relations with these countries continue on the right path.”

Can Uganda and Ethiopia act as Egypt’swater bankers”? – NatGeo 

Africa Water | Nile in Egypt

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The Ethiopian Megalomaniac Death Dam Gibe II start operating risking millions riparian population & the environment…


Gilgel Gibe II, Ethiopia’s pyramidal hydroelectric power plant built on the epicenter of moving East African and Nubian Plaque has dangerously started service after suspended operation for 11 months ago. The collapse of the tunnel was mainly caused by the movement of  separating East African Rift Valley stretching from Afar Triangle down to the Omo , thus  river creating a new ocean breaking the Horn of Africa from the rest of the continent into an island.

Gibe II dam fatally stopped operation immediately after it started service on these moving plates earlier this year due to the collapse of 26 km long tunnel.

This dangerous project initially cost Italian company Salini 375 million euros. The reconstruction of these destructive Dam cost almost half of the initial cost of construction.

Ethipian dictator’s  other destructive Dams are those of Tana Beles at the source of the River Nile and Tekeze. Both dams’ will mostly be used for irrigation on the grabbed fertile lands, thus diminishing the amount of water that will flow down to Sudan and Egypt. With the increase of land grabbing in the country for intensive commercial farms, the river basin will also weaken and eventually dry the Nile and the Tekeze rivers. The traditional Ethiopian farmers who have been evicted from their ancestral farms by the land grabbers never used water intensive farms and crops  for over a three  millennium. In the contrarily these new commercial crops are not environment friendly rather will affect the only remaining meager forestry in the south if any left in the country.  Commercial farms in general are water intensive when it comes producing in quantity. When it comes to  non renewable  fossil   energy an  industrial farms will need more than ever  for the ever demanding  cash crops production and most of the land could be used  such production and rural urban immigration will definitively grow   by the evicted  farmers whose land have been grabbed moving to the  cities.
The increase Eastern African  tectonic plate  movement  created a Geological  split in the tunnels, however,  the ruling  dictator gave order  to reconstruct the deadly  tunnel  after being briefed  that   it had caused a major slit in the concrete lining 9kms deep in the over 25kms long tunnel on  22 January, almost a week after inauguration. But shamefully the Ethiopian genocidal strong man ordered the reopening of the risky plant   which was closed 25 January, 2010.

GII uses water from another deadly dam constructed more than 26kms away for an existing power plant called GI. After it generates 180Mw at the older station, the water is channeled through 25.8kms long, 6.3m diameter concrete tunnel bowered through chains of volcanic mountains to generate 420Mw at GII.

The recent Earth Quake which menaced the region with a force 5.1 riche Terre has affected the three dams in the region further risking the inhabitants. The arrogant obstinate   Ethiopian dictator has provoked the extinction of the original cradle of humanity the Omotic population from the face of the earth. Over 1 and half million inhabitant down river will starve by end of the damming project by the drastic change of their traditional way of life depending on the cyclic flooding of the Omo River.

These fragile tunnels are supported by a steep elevation, two 1,000m long metal penstocks at GII pouring  water from the tunnel in the mid-height of a tectonic mountain down to the turbines at the bottom, gushing power station menacing to explode even with a minimum earth Quake caused by ever opening moving rift valley which the dams helplessly trying to connect together. With water pressure and the moving plates could bust at any time in the rainy season like last winter over flooding the dams killed unknown number of people and live stock displacing over 100 thousands.

Ethiopia was forced to fall in a power crisis caused by the ruling regime led to a regular power shedding in order to justify its construction of megalomaniac dams in a country where the already existing dams have not been used to their maximum potential. The existing dams would have been reinforced   before constructing further at the expense of the environment and extension of Omotic people. The dictator schedule for almost a decade now the country to embark on the construction of more than five ambitious power plants strictly to be used for export orientated commercial grabbed lands at the expense of the local farmers and power exportation for the neighboring countries, as Zneawie  dreams  to become a water power. Such projects will risk the down river inhabitants of Lake Turkana in Kenya, Sudan and Egypt.

The genocidal corrupted dictator ordered to shed power intensively over the past three years, thus artificially to prospect the resolution of the crisis by commissioning destructive plants, like GII.   The hastily   constructed dams proved the contrary by collapsing.

The so called Ethiopia’s landscape and its river basins are said to have given the country a potential to generate over 46,000Mw hydropower but its current electricity generation capacity is 2,000MW, more than double from 2006 is a myth. Since the country situated in live volcanic region of the world with a high risk of eruption and unprecedented earth quake will the  lives of Millions in the region.  The magalomaniac dictator Melese must be stopped before further damaging the region leading to water crisis as seen from his recent declartion of war against Egypt.

Ethiopia must embark to more alternative nature friendly energy powers like, gas, wind, solar and thermal energy than deadly dams to the destruction of the flora and fauna of the country. Moreover, such non consented projects will menace the neighboring countries like Egypt and Sudan leading to eventual war and conflict.

Prof. Muse  Tegegne

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Nile long waited water war is declared, Ethiopia is beating drums against Egypt የአባይ ጦርነት ነጋሪት በወያኔ መመታት ተጀመረ።

In the Imperial Ethiopia war was declared from the king of king’s palace with a great drum known as Negariet.  Ethiopia and Egypt had engaged in wars in their respective past and ancient past histories. According to the Antiquities writer Flavius Josephus (37 – c.100 AD/CE) that Egypt won once against Ethiopia with an army led by the Patriarch Moses around the Nile in the Lake Tana at the source of the Blue Nile.  In the later days in the time of the 25th Dynasty the Ethiopian kings Shebitku  (698-690BC) , Taharqa (690-664 -BC ) ruled over Egypt.

In the past Ethiopian Kings had declared war against Egypt to protect the Copts by using the Nile as deterrence. The Egyptians accepted the Ethiopian demand as the return of the cross of Queen Helen of Byzantines given to the Christian Churches of Jesus found today in St. Mary of Lalibela menaced by the Nile in the past. Ethiopian tradition is full of tells how the kings used to Nile as an arm against the Islamic invention in the past.

In recent times Egypt lost two principal wars against Ethiopia at Gundet 1875 & Gura in 1876 and on the Red Sea shores at the fall of the Ottoman Empire which saved Ethiopia and Sudan from being a part of Egypt once for all.

Today the Ethiopian Strong Man the dictator Melese Zenawie has started beating the drum of war against Egypt. He was born in the historical capital of Ethiopia Adwa, where to this day two of the captured Egyptian canon from the Battle of Gura still stands. The dictator grew playing with this 100 years canons dreaming with a legend of war with Egypt which was won by the King of kings and Ras Alula. The genocidal dictator wanted to win the heart and the minds of Ethiopians by menacing the 2nd strong Army of the Continent after South Africa the dream of his childhood. The Egyptians preferred to play low profile. The new  king of the Nile the Axumite Melese Zenawie did bit his lips when he declared that he will bit Egypt in the coming water wars with his army of  half million famine dry bones, who are surviving from the  a meal from international donation. He has been preparing the African and Ethiopian minds for such eventual outcome.

Now the ball is in the hands of the Egyptian leaders if they are going to accept the Nile Waters to be deviated and used highly commercial farms owned by the international Grabbers. Egypt is caught with election dilemma right now. Melese rugged the May 2010 election won with a record never seen in any Dictator capitals by scoring  99.6% of the votes in his favor.

Horn of  Africa’s self  proclaimed   King of the Waters  declared  out rightly without respecting the sensibility of the Egyptians and other Nile  riparian states in the following terms :-

“Egypt could not win a war with Ethiopia over the River Nile and is also supporting rebel groups in an attempt to destabilize the Horn of Africa nation, Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawie said in an interview.”

‘Such declaration would come out only from a mouth of war monger not from a responsible leader from the African Unity capital Addis Ababa against one of its member states.

Recent  refusal of  Melse Zenawie’s  to compromise and  understanding put the  riparian  countries in a dead lock  for  more than a decade of contentious talks  by  claiming reparation  from  colonial  injustice of a previous Nile water treaty signed in 1929 which put Egypt and Sudan  in a dilemma  and refused to sign. Colonial treaties are the basis for even the existence of Sudan and the rest of Africans as a country.  If you touch one of the colonial treaties all will scramble.  Melese Zenawie recently recognized and gave lands to Sudan based on his own treaty as a payment for  Sudan in order not host  his oppositions in its soil. The fall of the Nile Colonial treaty will start war even with Sudan and is the being of the end for the AU which is based on the   1964 Cairo agreement to respect the entire colonial heritage based on the sacro saint frontiers designed by the colonialists. This will be the brining of long post colonial African wars declared by the Water dictator Melese Zenawie.

Under the original colonial pact Egypt is entitled to 55.5 billion cubic meters a year, the lion’s share of the Nile’s total flow of around 84 billion cubic meters, despite the fact some 87 percent of the water originates in Ethiopia.

Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda and Kenya signed a new deal to share the waters in May against the aforementioned colonial one. This was done, by the instigation of Melese Zenawie which will put an end the colonial treaties   even to the Existent of Egypt and Sudan as a country. Thus provoking Egypt to call it a “national security” issue.

The Melese the self declared  king of the waters words were not in vain. He has built five huge dams over the last decade and has begun construction on a new $1.4 billion hydropower facility — the biggest in Africa menacing even the survival of Egypt and Sudan. Egypt, almost totally dependent on the Nile and threatened by climate change, is closely watching hydroelectric dam construction in the upstream countries trying to work with the Dictator playing in his games by investing in Ethiopia.

Melese from childhood grew dreaming the 1870’s war with Egypt, and had prepared to punish them with waters in any case.

He said  not to be happy with the rhetoric coming from the Egyptians but dismissed the claims of some analysts that war could eventually erupt.

“I am not worried that the Egyptians will suddenly invade Ethiopia,” Meles told Reuters in an interview. “Nobody who has tried that has lived to tell the story. I don’t think the Egyptians will be any different and I think they know that.”

The five signatories of the new deal have given the other Nile Basin countries one year to join the pact before putting it into action. Sudan has backed Egypt while Democratic Republic of the Congo and Burundi have so far refused to sign.

“The Egyptians have yet to make up their minds as to whether they want to live in the 21st or the 19th century,” Meles told Reuters in an interview, referring to the fact the original treaty was negotiated by colonial administrators. In reality it is Melese who lives back in 1870’s.

Meles accused Egypt of trying to destabilize his country by supporting several small rebel groups but said it was a tactic that would no longer work.

“If we address the issues around which the rebel groups are mobilized then we can neutralize them and therefore make it impossible for the Egyptians to fish in troubled waters because there won’t be any,” he said

The Egyptian President replied to the provocation of the Ethiopians strong man:

“Egypt’s ties with Ethiopia are friendly and dismissed an Ethiopian assertion that Cairo was backing rebel groups in the Horn of Africa nation. This is the first time we hear that we support any group in any country. This is not something we do with any nation and this is not our form of conduct,” Mubarak told the state-run al-Ahram newspaper, making his first remarks on the issue.” The Egyptian Ryes further added that “”We have very amicable relations with Ethiopia,”  “I was surprised by these comments because this is something we cannot do with any Arab or African country.”

After Meles’ remarks, Egypt’s foreign ministry said it was “amazed” by Ethiopia’s suggestion that Cairo might turn to military action in a row over the Nile waters, saying it did not want confrontation.

The Nile is a vital water and energy source for the nine countries stretching more than 6,600 km (4,100 miles) from Lake Victoria to the Mediterranean.   Melese was not born in the Nile regions of Ethiopia and never knew the Nile as a child but Tekeze River one of the main tributary of the Nile, where he built on of the megalomaniac dam to this day.

Melese revived his long childhood fantasy by declaring war against Egypt:

“Hopefully that shoud convince the Egyptians that, as direct conflict will not work, and as the indirect approach is not as effective as it used to be, the only sane option will be civil dialogue.” What he meant by direct talk his to destroy the colonial treaties which will have a direct effect in all colonial legacies since one is connected with the other. He is ushering the end of the Horn of Africa as we know it in the post colonial period.

Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni in July called for a scheduled November meeting of the nine countries to be attended by heads of state. Meles said that would not happen now rather he declared war and is taking every thing in his hands without consulting the other riparians .

The last meeting of all sides ended in stalemate and angry exchanges between water ministers at a news conference in Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa.

Egyptian Water Minister Mohamed Nasreddin Allam told Reuters at that meeting “Ask the Egyptians to leave their culture and go and live in the desert because you need to take this water and to add it to other countries? “.

The War of Words is declared now the true ball is in the hands of Egyptians when they see their beloved Nile water is shrinking   down slowly from their face by the dams and irrigations canals of the Ethiopian Dictator in the fields of commercial grabbed farms. Traditional Ethiopian farmers do not use the Nile rather the rain, but the news commercial crops like rice needs huge quantities of water.  The dilemma is some Egyptians companies are investing in the grabbed land of highland Abyssinia. It is hard whom to trust up riverine or down streamers for a peaceful out come ? UN must interveane before its is too late?

Prof. Muse Tegegne

Riparian

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Ethiopian Tectonic Dam overrun and destroyed farms and lives as predicted Prof. Muse Tegegne

270'000 Ethiopians menaced by deluge

Gebe I an Ethiopian   dam built on Eastern Africa’s separating tectonic plates without any geological survey has been over run as predicted and destroyed many farm lands with the loss of unknown number of human and animal lives.  A dam constructed with a simple order of the ruling dictator   has started costing lives and farms. The undetermined number of Omotic population killed like that of the 2006 floods. Such forced runoff will precipitate the eventual collapse of dams within 24 months after the flood creating a slope gradient of the soil surface near the gully as the recent studies predict in 40 % of the case.

The news passed in silence in a country where the regime does not tolerate critics when it comes to its megalomaniac constructions. In Ethiopia writing any article concerning the deadly dams is a taboo in a country where almost all the independent media are closed and the remaining journalists are fleeing. And the foreign independent Medias are not allowed to go and see and report, since dam construction has brought too much critic to the ruling dictator in the recent days. The only article about the looming catastrophe is a government media recently published in Amharic in order to keep it from international attention. The government gave the following biased information by the government controlled media Reporter   on 25 August 2010.  The governmental organ The Reporter   did not even care for the human and animal lives but on the generator which they claimed that “it will cost over 20Million”. They claimed “it was burned out by the mass flow of uncontrolled water.”   The main objective of such   disinformation is to hide the main cause of destruction which is high rain on the Ethiopian altitude and the tectonic movement which is active in the region.

The article gives contradictory statements that the water was released from the dam by the  electricians, at the same time it is reported that  the water over  run the dam due to the mass rain fall. The release of water in upstream by Gibe I could have a catastrophic repercussion on Gibe II and Gibe III which is not yet finished.

The dead bodies only would be found in downstream near and  around lake Turkana  as that  of the 2006 dam water release  incident in the tectonic death dams:-

“The death toll from flash floods in Ethiopia rose Monday after police reported an unknown number of bodies had been found in the country’s southwest, where 364 deaths have already been confirmed. The discovery of bodies on a remote delta in the flood-ravaged Omo River valley near the shores of Lake Turkana, on the Ethiopian-Kenyan border, came as authorities stepped up evacuation warnings in low-lying areas nationwide. ” Terra Daily Aug 21, 2006

This time year the government did not even issue a warning with the increasing flood all over the Ethiopian Highlands which left over 270000 people homeless.  This year all dams around Ethiopia are threatened.  The massif rain fall has flooded huge areas in the southwest, Koka dam on the Awash River in the east, and the Tise Abby on the Blue Nile in the north.

In Ethiopia like the flood 2006 hundred thousand farmlands   has been flooded due to the heavy rains that pounded the region.

This year the monsoon rain has been heavy in Ethiopia as that of the Pakistan and China. The different is the Ethiopian highland plateau drains the water faster to the lowland valley in Omo and Afar regions menacing the dams, where in Asia the water floats.  Heavy rain land slide and flooding will deteriorate the existing famine in the country.  The Ethiopian famine is not only the outcome drought but also heavy rain in the harvest   season which wipes out the farmlands and the mismanagement of the consecutive regimes which came to power in the country. The present regime perpetuates to existent to use it as a source of income to stay in power. The group  in power today had used in the past the Band Aid internationally raised fund by Bob  Geldof in 1984/85  to buy arms at the expense of the starving  millions.

The Ethiopian high land plateau is flooded once again and most of the rain in the south and east will storm the dams in the Gebe and Awash Rivers found the rift valley.  Today asking people who live around the dams to move to higher ground to take precautionary measures, as the rain in the highlands is increasing and dams start over flooding with  water beyond their capacity is not enough as prevention measures. The best solution is to find the main cause of over flooding, which is so called the government flood control method created by pyramidal dams.  The Ethiopian Dictator has to stop constructing them on such sliding land moving ground like that of Omo, since the region is situated in moving plates of the Eastern African Rift valley. One would not try to connect two separating plates by dam which will end up cracking and in the end will bust causing millions of lives down streams, unless you are a dictator and you have the world at your disposal.

Ethiopian Water Dictator Melese Zenawie promised to export electricity to Kenya, Sudan, and Djibouti in September 2010 after the rains and   at the cost of the lives of the riparian population. The dictator forgot in his formula two equations:-

– One the riparian population that he calls insects or butter flays considered as dispensable,

-two  the floods and the sliding soil  which is out of his personal control  or with that of  China which could not even control  its own dams,   flood and sliding mud.

Melese Zenawie’s promised amounts were: — 230 kilovolt to Djibouti, 500 megawatts of electricity to Kenya & 200 megawatts to Sudan.

These promises are built on sinking sands seeing the geological situation of the moving plates creating a new ocean in the horn of Africa at the site where the Pharaoh is constructing his dooms day pyramidal dams.

The final solution would be to Stop Damming and start making alternative energy. Most of all start satisfying ones won needs before even thinking to export. The hypothetical electrical megawatts   offers to the neighboring countries is  just a pretext by the ruling Dictator to galvanize  funds from financial institutions like  African development  and World Banks,  that  have already  started to be  skeptical  to these megalomaniac  catastrophic dams of the Ethiopian Water Dictator.

Ethiopia: At least 19 killed as heavy floods hit Ethiopian lowlands

(VOA)

Ethiopia: Floods displace thousands in Afar and Amhara regions

Oromia under water 30/08/2010

Wolo Land Sliding killed 37, 26/08/2010



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U.N. says 270,000 at risk as floods loom in Ethiopia

30 Aug 2010 17:03:00 GMT
Source: Reuters
By Barry MaloneADDIS ABABA, Aug 30 (Reuters) – More than a quarter of a million Ethiopians are risk from severe flooding next month when heavy rain is expected in the country, according to government estimates issued by the United Nations on Monday.

The U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) said 19 people were killed in mudslides after flooding last week and nearly 12,000 people had been displaced since then.

“Some 270,000 people could be affected by flooding in the (Amhara region),” OCHA said in a statement, quoting a contingency plan issued by regional authorities.

Flooding often affects Ethiopia’s lowlands during the rainy season between June and September. In 2006, more than 1,000 people were killed and more than 300,000 made homeless.

“New flooding has been reported in recent days, including in the eastern Amhara lowlands and in northern Somali Region,” it said.

The plan says $6.8 million would be needed to respond to such an emergency.

The country’s disaster management office gave a lower estimate, saying 153,000 people were likely to be affected by next month’s floods, of whom 25 per cent could lose their homes.

“Good contingency planning needs to be in place,” an aid worker monitoring the flooding told Reuters. “According to data from the meteorological office, the heavy rains will continue through September.”

Almost 5,000 people who fled to higher ground are now stranded and inaccessible to local authorities, according to the OCHA statement.

Significant flooding damages the country’s agriculture-based economy, washing away thousands of cattle, ruining crops and submerging roads. (Reporting by Barry Malone; editing by George Obulutsa and Andrew Dobbie)

Related :-

Ethiopia’s Hydro Plans Get Stuck in the Mud

Ethiopian Dam Suffers Tunnel Collapse Days After Inauguration

The Gibe 3 Dam – A Test Case for China’s Role in Africa

China’s Biggest Bank to Support Africa’s Most Destructive Dam

INTERVIEW-Ethiopia rejects dam criticism, targets 10,000 MW

02 Sep 2010 15:12:50 GMT

Source: Reuters
By Barry Malone
ADDIS ABABA, Sept 2 (Reuters) – Ethiopia on Thursday rejected criticism of its massive hydropower dam projects and vowed to push ahead with plans to boost its power generating ability from 2,000 MW to 10,000 MW within five years.

The Horn of Africa nation’s ambitious dam building programme has drawn fire from human rights groups as well as from Egypt and other Nile River countries.

“We have a plan to reach 10,000 MW within the coming five years,” mines and energy minister, Alemayehu Tegenu, told Reuters in an interview.

“Most of the energy we plan to generate will come from hydropower.”

Ethiopia is overwhelmingly reliant on dams for its energy needs and has opened three over the last year, bringing the total number in the country to seven.

Another two are being built, including the huge Gibe III — a project that foreign charities say could leave more than 200,000 people reliant on food aid.

Rights groups, spearheaded by Survival International, have started an online campaign against the dam, which would generate 2,000 MW, and are lobbying international lenders not to contribute to its 1.4 billion euro ($1.79 billion) cost.

“These organisations do not want Ethiopia to develop,” Alemayehu said.

“Criticising countries like Ethiopia is their source of income. They have no reason to attack our dams. We have environmental and social plans in place.”

The European Investment Bank (EIB) said last month that it had decided not to help fund the project but did not say why it had made that decision.

Alemayehu said it was possible the EIB had been pressured by rights groups.

“But I don’t know their reason,” he said. “It’s not a big problem for us. We have other options. And the funding at the moment is coming from our government.”

“NO NILE WAR”

Ethiopia’s hydropower plans are also closely watched by Egypt and Sudan who fear more dams on Ethiopia’s stretch of the Nile could leave them thirsty.

After more than a decade of talks driven by anger over the perceived injustice of a previous Nile water treaty signed in 1929, Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda and Kenya signed a new deal in May without their northern neighbours.

The five signatories have given the other Nile Basin countries — Egypt, Sudan, Burundi and Democratic Republic of the Congo — one year to join the pact but the countries have been split by behind-the-scenes rows since the signing.

Under the 1929 deal, Egypt, which faces water shortages by 2017, is entitled to 55.5 billion cubic metres a year, the lion’s share of the Nile’s flow of 84 billion cubic metres. Some 85 percent of the Nile’s waters originate in Ethiopia.

The nine countries are due to meet again in the Kenyan capital Nairobi in November.

“What we will construct on the river will never cause any problems for the Egyptians,” Alemayehu said. “But the Egyptians always stand against Ethiopian development. They need to understand better what we are planning.”

Alemayehu, however, ruled out the possibility that war could erupt over the Nile.

“That will never happen,” he said. “Never.”

Ethiopia plans to export power to neighbouring Sudan, Djibouti and Kenya as soon as it meets its own growing energy needs, Alemayehu said.

Ethiopia rationed power for five months this year with outages every second day, which closed factories, hampered exports and fuelled a currency shortage.

“We should have no need to ration power in 2011 with our new dams,” Alemayehu said. “We are now building interconnectivity infrastructure with Sudan and Djibouti and that should be finished within six months.”

Power demand in Africa will rise by 150,000 MW between 2007 and 2030, according to the International Energy Agency.

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The Gibe III dam: Over before it has begun?PrintE-mail
Written by Hannah Gibson (1)
Thursday, 02 September 2010 08:09
Energy shortfalls in Ethiopia have long been a problem, with frequent outages and reduced developmental capacity due to unreliable power supplies. The Ethiopian Government has therefore turned to large-scale hydroelectric power in an attempt to tackle the problem. As of 2010, five major hydroelectric projects are underway in the country, with more still in the planning stage.

Gibe III is a hydropower project which, on completion, will comprise the tallest dam in Africa. The building of Gibe III however has been surrounded by controversy, mainly due to environmental and human rights concerns. The environmental impact of the dam and its associated reservoir is expected to be significant and thousands of people who live in the region will need to be relocated. Although construction of the dam has already begun, the project has not yet secured full funding and, under pressure from campaigners, some of the building work has been suspended. This discussion paper explores the issues relating to the hydro-electric projects on the Gilgel Gibe River in southern Ethiopia, focusing on Gibe III.

A background to the project: Gibe I and Gibe II

The Gibe hydropower project comprises a series of dams located along the Omo River in southern Ethiopia. The Omo River flows from an area approximately 300km southwest of Addis Ababa and on into Lake Turkana in the Rift Valley region of Kenya, and the Gilgel Gibe River is a tributary of the Omo River. Plans to develop the hydroelectric potential of the Gilgel Gibe River were first announced in the 1980s. Construction of the Gilgel Gibe plant started in 1986 and was completed in 2004, resulting in the Gibe I dam. The plant became Ethiopia’s largest power plant with a capacity of 184 megawatts, enough to power over 123,000 homes.(2)

However, from the outset however it was clear that the electricity generated by Gibe I would not be sufficient for Ethiopia’s growing power needs. The second phase of the development of the Gibe hydropower potential saw the introduction of the Gibe II plant. Located approximately 2 kilometres downstream of the Gibe I dam, Gibe II was introduced to channel the river that was regulated by the Gibe I dam through a 26km-long hydraulic tunnel. Gibe II has the capacity to generate more than 400 megawatts of electricity and there was no need for any of the inhabitants of the areas along the river to be relocated since it used structures already in place as part of Gibe I.(3) The Gibe II project was inaugurated in January 2010.

The Gibe III Project

Gibe III is the third in the series of cascading hydroelectric projects in the region. Gibe III is also located on the Omo River and on completion, will be the largest hydropower plant in Africa. Its anticipated power output of about 1870 megawatts will more than double the total installed capacity in Ethiopia, which in 2007 was 814 megawatts.(4) Ethiopia has suffered from frequent blackouts and power cuts over recent years and is in need of increased electrical supply. The planned generating capacity of Gibe III will create more power than Ethiopia will consume, meaning that surplus energy can be sold to neighbouring countries. Djibouti, Yemen, Kenya, Uganda, Sudan and Egypt will all be in a position to purchase the excess energy from Ethiopia.(5)

According to the Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation (EEPCO), the sole provider or power in Ethiopia, the surplus energy is expected to create US$ 407 million in revenue with Ethiopia.(6) For Ethiopia, one of the poorest countries in the world, this additional revenue will provide a vital boost to the economy. The EEPCO also predicts that the regulation of the flow of the river, which floods annually under normal circumstances, will be beneficial for local inhabitants since the river will be navigable all year round.

Project met with opposition

Construction of Gibe III began in 2006 and was initially scheduled for completion in 2010. Concerns have been raised however, over the severe environmental degradation and the human rights implications that are predicated to accompany the project. The decreased water flow of the Omo River as a result of the Gibe III dam will have a significant impact on the ecosystems surrounding the river. Concerns have also been raised over the implications of resettlement and the loss of livelihood for the people who live along the Omo River. Human rights advocates say that the dam project has the potential to destroy the livelihoods of 500,000 people in Ethiopia and Kenya.(7) Flood retreat cultivation is central to the lives of many people living along the Omo River. Families traditionally plant riverbank plots as the river floods begin to retreat, with harvesting taking place a few months later. This silt-laden floodwaters mean additional fertilisers are not needed and the reliability of the harvest makes it a fundamental practice for the region’s food security.(8) With the introduction of the dam and the regulation of the flow of the river, this practice will no longer be possible.

Although construction is already under way on Gibe III, a collation of environmental and human rights groups have mounted a campaign to stop the project. The aim is to pressure financiers into ceasing their support of the project. It is in partly due to concerns that have been raised over the environmental and human impact of the project that the full construction cost has not yet been secured.

The project is predominately financed by the Ethiopian Government, with part of the project financed through a corporate bond issued by EEPCO, which is marketed to the Ethiopian diaspora. The World Bank and the European Investment Bank also considered funding the project, but have not yet approved any funding. The Exim Bank of China finances the transmission line to Addis Ababa and the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China volunteered a US$ 500 million dollar loan, although this loan has also not yet been confirmed. In March 2010 the African Development Bank (AfDB), one of the main funders of the project, delayed a decision about a loan pending a review of the dam’s environmental impact. The review has been delayed twice previously, but the fact that the AfDB agreed to undertake the hydrological assessment has led opponents to believe that these issues were not studied sufficiently by project developers prior to the beginning of construction. Two previous environmental impact assessments conducted for EEPCO in 2006 and 2008 have also been challenged by the Africa Resources Working Group.(9)

A view to the future

Whilst even critics of the hydropower projects agree that Ethiopia needs to expand its energy production capacity in order to support development, whether large-scale hydropower plants is the best way to do this is a question that is being asked from many sides. The thought that Ethiopia will become one of the most hydropower-dependent nations in the world makes many wary of such a project. Such total dependence on rain in a time of global warming may be potentially disastrous in a country where drought-related food shortages are prevalent and water resources are critical for survival. In contrast, neighbouring Kenya has announced that it is stepping back from hydropower reliance due to the environmental conditions in the country.(10)

The inability of the Gibe III project to secure complete funding points is an ongoing problem for this project, in that it has not yet convinced people that the risks involved are worth it and necessary. It seems that even with construction under way, completion is not certain. Thorough and transparent ecological and human impact assessments need to be carried out in order for the project to move forward with minimum damage and delay and with maximum benefit for the region that the project is aimed at serving.

Nile & Omotic Riparians are considered as ” butterflies” to be eliminated by the Ethiopian Pharaoh Zenawie Prof. Muse Tegegne

The Ethiopian Pharaoh, the shameless Melese Zenawie announced publically he will continue to pursue the building of the death dam on the river Omo and on the  source of the Blue Nile. He called the people riparians as Butterflies to be eliminated. This is his official defiant declaration even after the African Development Bank and the European Bank blocked his megalomaniac dreams of water power financing at the expense of the people of Egypt, Southern Ethiopia and Kenya. His Dam on omo river will obliged the Kenyans to use the rest of the rivers that otherwise would have  streamed   to Egypt in their land,  since Lake Turkana  soon will dry immidately after the finishing of the Gebe III.

Dictator’s  raged victory of the election of 23 May 2010, with dumped result of over 99% of the vote was a mock to all  democracy loving nations. He publically insulted the US dam and that of the Survival international in the video here in Amharic below. He staged a demonstration in Washington DC to force the US government to change position against Egypt and support his megalomaniac damming projects over the Nile head waters. Melese the Sick Man of the Horn of Africa does not care for any environment destruction of the Ethiopian water basin. Melese to our surprise and that of the whole world was elected to represent the African continent on the international meetings where he produced a shameful result.

Melese Zenewie the Genocidal- Megalomaniac-Raciest-Mad Man must be halted before he destroys the region by war and unprecedented conflict  through environmental cataclysm. This could be done by collective intervention supported by the UN. The UN Security Council must consider this sick man in power   seriously than any eventual atomic treat in any part of the world. Since he actively produces destruction by proxy terrorism in Somalia,   damming in most radical and expedient manor, by financing his way to power through famine and keep perpetuating the death of millions through endemic hunger.


[slideshow id=1]

PM Meles – Whether You Like It Or Not Ethiopia will build Gibe III!

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The Karo (or Kara), with a population of about 1000 - 1500 live on the east banks of the Omo River in south Ethiopia. Here, a Karo mother sits with her children. © Eric Lafforgue/Survival

European Investment Bank abandons Ethiopia mega dam5 August 2010

The European Investment Bank (EIB) has announced it is no longer considering funding Africa’s tallest dam, in Ethiopia. The hydroelectric dam, called Gibe III, has drawn international criticism because of the devastating effect it is likely to have on the food security of at least eight Ethiopian tribes.

In a statement, the EIB claims to have withdrawn from Gibe III because the Ethiopian government has found alternative funding sources for the dam. However the ICBC, the state-owned Chinese bank recently discussed as a potential funder, recently made it clear that the deal is not yet settled and far from guaranteed.

Before stepping back from Gibe III, the EIB completed a review of existing environment and social impact studies for the dam. The review confirms concerns from Survival and others that the lives of the tribes living in the Lower Omo Valley, downstream of Gibe III, will be fundamentally altered and their food security threatened if the dam is complete. The study also acknowledges that these tribes have not been adequately consulted.

The Lower Omo River in south west Ethiopia is home to eight different tribes whose population is about 200,000. They have lived there for centuries.

However the future of these tribes lies in the balance. A massive hydro-electric dam, Gibe III, is under construction on the Omo. When completed it will destroy a fragile environment and the livelihoods of the tribes, which are closely linked to the river and its annual flood.

Hamar girls display their ornate hair and adornments.
Hamar girls display their ornate hair and adornments.
© Eric Lafforgue/Survival

Salini Costruttori, an Italian company, started construction work on the Gibe III dam at the end of 2006, and has already built a third of it.

China’s largest bank, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), has agreed to fund part of the construction of the dam. The Ethiopian government has also asked the African Development Bank and the Italian government to fund Gibe III, and they are expected to make a decision soon.

Survival and various regional and international organisations believe that the Gibe IIIDam will have catastrophic consequences for the tribes of the Omo River, who already live close to the margins of life in this dry and challenging area.

We are calling on the African Development Bank and other potential funders not to support this project until a complete and independent social and environmental impact study is carried out and the tribal peoples have been fully consulted and given their free informed and prior consent.

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A Must Gibe III, the biggest hydro-electric dam

European Investment Bank abandons Ethiopia mega dam
5 AUGUST 2010

Web campaign against Ethiopia Gibe III dam « Afrika Speaks 

Download a letter from Survival to the African Development Bank’sexecutive directors (PDF)


Read NGO International Rivers’ request for investigation of Gibe 3 dam to the Compliance Review Mechanism Unit of the African Development Bank »

Download International Rivers Factsheet (PDF)

Protest targets Italian government over Ethiopian dam disaster

Act now to help the Omo Valley tribes

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Mubarak pledges to keep Nile water in Egypt

While inaugurating the new Saft el-Laban corridor in Giza, President Mubarak assured that Nile water “will not extend beyond Egyptian borders.”

Mubarak further called for making optimal use of Nile water, carrying out seawater desalination projects, and using modern technology to develop new types of crops that can be irrigated with salt water in order to satisfy the growing demand for food.

Diaa Eddin al-Qoussi, former advisor to the minister of irrigation, told Al-Masry Al-Youm that Mubarak’s statements clearly demonstrate that Egypt will not give up its Nile water quota in order to satisfy Israel. He added that Mubarak’s statements further emphasize that Egypt rejects any negotiations which aim to bring Nile water to Israel.

Maghawri Shehata Diab, former president of Minufiya University and a water expert, said Mubarak’s statements reflect a clear understanding of the geographical nature of the Nile Basin, as well as of the political and legal dimensions governing the distribution of water.

In related news, Kenya has announced that it is carrying out an assessment of the impact of Ethiopia’s Gibe III Dam. The dam, intended to generate hydroelectric power, would become the second largest dam in Africa after Egypt’s High Dam in Aswan.

The massive dam is scheduled to be completed by 2012 at an estimated cost of US$1.76 billion. Construction of the dam is mainly financed by the African Development Bank. The World Bank withdrew funding for the project under pressure from non-governmental organizations.

The dam will generate 1,800 megawatts of electricity, according to the Ethiopian government, which also says that Kenya has pledged to purchase some of the energy produced by the dam. As a result, Kenyan environmental groups have accused their government of taking greater interest in the well-being of Ethiopians.

The Ethiopian government says that environmental impact studies have shown that the dam will not negatively impact life in any local communities.

The Kenyan Minister of Power said that the Kenyan government and the European Investment Bank will both study the impact of the dam. The results of both studies will be submitted to the Kenyan government in December.

The Kenyan government’s decision to examine the potential impact of building the dam came in response to local and international pressure from rights groups. These groups cited Egypt’s threat of military intervention if Ethiopia carried out any projects that would intervene with the flow of the Blue Nile.

Translated from the Arabic Edition.

Ethiopian dam ‘funded by Italy,’ say govt sources

Officials: Egypt and Uganda discuss Nile summit

Sudan ambassador: No dispute with Egypt

Nile War Declared by a megalomaniac Dam Construction in the horn of Africa Prof. Muse Tegegne

“If  Ethiopia takes any action to block our right to the Nile waters, there will be no alternative for us but to use force. Tampering with the rights of a nation to water is tampering with its life, and a decision to go to war on this score is indisputable in the international community.” President Anwar el-Sadat

We are not begging Egypt and Sudan to give us our fair share of the Nile,” Ethiopia’s water minister, Asfaw Dingamo, said on June 24. “No soldier on the Nile will prevent us from using the waters as long as we are not causing any significant harm to each other.”


The Nile form Greek word “Nelios”, meaning River Vally   is the longest river in the world. The only river flowing from south to the north to words the orion constellation with the sphinx of Egypt with Giza Pyramid it  marks  the Milk-way  known since the  12’000 BC in pre-Delugeian Egypt.


In the pharaonic Egypt  over  5000 years ago the Nile was flowing  under the foot of the Sphinx  flooding at the rise of Sirius. It was a very important star to the ancient Egyptians, who called it the Star of Isis or the Nile Star .

On the rising of  Sirius  Egyptians  knew it would soon be time for the flooding. This Flooding  the Ethiopian dictator  Menese Zenawie will be  soon stopping.  The seasonal  flooding  of the Nile is all the Egyptian  life  and the Zodiac as a center of the Earth is interwoven.  The Twelve stars  and the signs are also marked by the seasonal flow of the Nile river. Melese Zenawie the New Pharaoh of Ethiopia will be soon  stopping  draining Bahr al-Azraq the only source   of  the fertility and soil for livelihood for  Egypt. 87 %  of the Nile rises from Ethiopian high lands.

River Ruvyironza in Burundi is the  ultimate source of the Nile, it changes it flows to   Kagera River. Kagera follows  northern  Rwanda northward, connects the  three countries   the Great Lake  RwandaUganda and Tanzania slowly drains to  Lake Victoria.  When it comes  from lake Victoria it changes its name to  whit Nile  and e flows generally north of Uganda and into Sudan and meets its tween   Blue Nile known also Abay in Ethiopia  or Bahr al-Azraq at Khartoum.  Rising from the Abyssinian highlands  travels 1529 km (950 mi)   from Lake T’ana  at the altitude of 2,150 m (7,054 ft) above sea level. From the confluence of the White and Blue Nile, the river continues to flow northwards into Egypt and on to the Mediterranean Sea.  From its source  Ruvyironza River it  is 6671 km (4145 mi) long making the Nile river basin has an area of more than 3,349,000 sq km (1,293,049 sq mi).

The Nile Cities like Cairo, Gondokoro, Khartoum, Aswan, Thebes/Luxor, Karnak, and the town of Alexandria lies near the Rozeta branch will soon short of  sweet water to drink because the new megalomaniac Dictator Melese Zenawie  once  supported  by Egypt during his struggle, will control the flow.

The major dams  like  Roseires Dam, Sennar Dam, Aswan High Dam, and Owen Falls Dam soon will be at the desposal the Water  Dictator in Addis Ababa.

Egypt is one of the hottest and sunniest countries in the world. With the exception of a strip about 80 km/50 mi wide along the Mediterranean coast, Egypt has a desert climate, being entirely within the Sahara. While Ethiopia is located in the tropics and variations in altitude have produced a variety of microclimates.

The legendary fertility of Egypt is a consequence of the fact that about 3% of the country consists of the Nile valley and delta. The river Nile has no tributaries within Egypt but is nourished by the heavy rains that fall far to the south in Ethiopia and East Africa. The Nile valley and delta are intensively cultivated by irrigation and contain about 95% of Egypt’s population. The Mediterranean coastal strip has an average annual rainfall of 100-200mm/4-8 in, which is not sufficient to support crops. Over the rest of Egypt, roughly south of Cairo, the annual rainfall is a mere 25-50 mm/1-2 in. In the contrary Ethiopia revives 100 times  rains fall morthan Egypt. The Ethiopian mean annual rainfall ranges from 2000-mm over some pocket areas in the southwest highlands, and less than 250-mm in the lowlands.  In general, annual precipitation ranges from 800 to 2200-mm in the highlands (>1500 meters) and varies from less than 200 to 800-mm in the lowlands (<1500 meters).  Rainfall also decreases northwards and eastwards from the high rainfall pocket area in the southwest.

Three Rainfall Regimes of EthiopiaBelg Production Areas in Ethiopia

Minister of Water Resources Kamal Ali Mohammed (L) and Mohammed Nasredine Allam, Egypt's minister for water resources and irrigation, sit side-by-side prior to a meeting in Khartoum on May 20, 2010. (AFP PHOTO/IBRAHIM HAMID) With a sad and shock in their faces understanding the self declared war against Egypt by Ethiopia with the Fresh Bottled Nile water in front of them... soon will be rare..

The Ethiopian dictator Melese Zenawie is trying to lull Egypt to its destruction. He publicly claims that Egypt will receive pure water from Ethiopia witout any soil in his Egyptian TV interview. Thus, it is the end of Egypt as we know it. Egypt needs the soil embedded Nile water. Without such water the soil of Egypt’s  farm lands will lose that yearly renovating fresh soil from the Ethiopian Highland plateau. The Nile will be transformed according to Melese Zenawe to White Nile.  The new Ethiopian   Blue Nile converted to White Nile will not make it to Egypt.  It   will vaporize in the Nubian Desert. The soil keeps the constancy of the two Niles  to resist in  crossing over 40°C    burning Nubian desert to flow to Egypt.

The Ethiopian Dictator as recently remarked not only he will deprive the Nile from its soil content but also as he  will control  the yearly flood of the river( listen to his declaration  in the video here under). The Nile River’s average discharge is about 300 million cubic meters per day will be soon be  an old story when he start bottling and selling the sweet water in dollar. This  undo  flood control will destroy the Flora and fauna  natural cycle near and around  the great pharaonic river.

The megalomaniac Water Pharaoh of  Ethiopia Melese Zenewa just to have a regional undue  power is putting at risk the lives of millions of inhabitants in Ethiopia (Omotic people), Kenya ( lake Turkana ) Sudan and Egypt ( the Nile), by construction 0ver 500 dams  in the  principal water heads  of the region.

Egypt  pharaonic needs the yearly floods of the Nile. This in turn keeps the Egypt farm land refreshed and the cycle of  the minimum of riverian  annually need   will be maintained. Ethiopia with annual  rain fall of 2000mm does not need to build dams which will deprive Egypt who has only 200 mm  of yearly rains. Ethiopia rather could  use  alternative energy sources, like  thermodynamic, Solar, Wind, sleeping turbines (the Chinese are expert  in this matter rather than building huge useless dams for their new friend Melese Zenawi). Egypt could even participate in the development of Geothermal energy  rather than grabbing land in Ethiopia.

The Nile water constant flow without yearly  flooding will completely change Egypt way of life  around the Nile.

Ethiopia having over 12 rivers and 12 lakes does not need to stabilize the Nile and purify the water reaching Egypt if  any left any way.

The Ethiopian Dictator is preparing for the coming war with Egypt. He has already send pamphlets to be distributed and  mobilize the Ethiopians in Diaspora:- Read

Egypt softens

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Egypt softens position in Nile dispute

Egypt sounded a conciliatory note in a dispute over how Nile waters should be shared by the countries it passes through at an African summit in Kampala
Tuesday, 27 July 2010 12:44

Egypt sounded a conciliatory note on Monday in a dispute over how Nile waters should be shared by the countries it passes through at an African summit in the Ugandan capital Kampala.

After more than a decade of talks driven by anger over the perceived injustice of a previous Nile water treaty signed in 1929, Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda and Kenya signed a new deal in May without their northern neighbours.

The five signatories have given the other Nile Basin countries — Egypt, Sudan, Burundi and Democratic Republic of the Congo — one year to join the pact but the countries have been torn by behind-the-scenes debate since the signing.

“There are no strategic differences between us,” Egyptian Prime Minister Ahmed Nazif told reporters at the summit. “The issue is only on some technical points that need resolution. The purpose of the Nile Basin agreements is development.”

The words mark a softening of the Egyptian position since a meeting of water ministers from the nine countries last month in the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa.

“Ask the Egyptians to leave their culture and go and live in the desert because you need to take this water and to add it to other countries? No,” Egyptian Water Minister Mohamed Nasreddin Allam told Reuters at that meeting.

The Nile, stretching more than 6,600 km (4,100 miles) from Lake Victoria to the Mediterranean, is a vital water and energy source for the countries through which it flows.

Egyptian state news agency MENA reported that Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni and Nazif agreed at the AU summit that a meeting of the nine states, to take place in Nairobi by November, should be attended by heads of state.

Burundi and Democratic Republic of the Congo have not signed the deal yet and have so far been tight-lipped about whether they plan to or not.

Under the original pact Egypt, which faces possible water shortages by 2017, is entitled to 55.5 billion cubic metres a year, the lion’s share of the Nile’s total flow of around 84 billion cubic metres.

Some 85 percent of the Nile’s waters originate in Ethiopia.

Reuters

Can Uganda and Ethiopia act as Egypt’s “water bankers”?

Nile Basin countries may fight for water

New Nile agreement a wake-up call for Egypt

Dispute over Nile water share escalates

Nile Basin Relations: Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia

May 7, 1929 – The Agreement between Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

    • Egypt and Sudan utilize 48 and 4 billion cubic meters of the Nile flow per year, respectively;
    • The flow of the Nile during January 20 to July 15 (dry season) would be reserved for Egypt;
    • Egypt reserves the right to monitor the Nile flow in the upstream countries;
    • Egypt assumed the right to undertake Nile river related projects without the consent of upper riparian states.
    • Egypt assumed the right to veto any construction projects that would affect her interests adversely.
  • .

    This agreement included:

In effect, this agreement gave Egypt complete control over the Nile during the dry season when water is most needed for agricultural irrigation. It also severely limits the amount of water allotted Sudan and provides no water to any of the other riparian states.

    The 1959 Nile agreement between the Sudan and Egypt for full control utilization of the Nile waters.

  • This agreement included:
    • The controversy on the quantity of average annual Nile flow was settled and agreed to be about 84 billion cubic meters measured at Aswan High Dam, in Egypt.
    • The agreement allowed the entire average annual flow of the Nile to be shard among the Sudan and Egypt at 18.5 and 55.5 billion cubic meters, respectively.
    • Annual water loss due to evaporation and other factors were agreed to be about 10 billion cubic meters. This quantity would be deducted from the Nile yield before share was assigned to Egypt and Sudan.
    • Sudan, in agreement with Egypt, would construct projects that would enhance the Nile flow by preventing evaporation losses in the Sudd swamps of the White Nile located in the southern Sudan. The cost and benefit of same to be divided equally between them. If claim would come from the remaining riparian countries over the Nile water resource, both the Sudan and Egypt shall, together, handle the claims.
    • If the claim prevails and the Nile water has to be shared with another riparian state, that allocated amount would be deducted from the Sudan’s and Egypt’s and allocations/shares in equal parts of Nile volume measured at Aswan.
    • The agreement granted Egypt the right to constructs the Aswan High Dam that can store the entire annual Nile River flow of a year.
    • It granted the Sudan to construct the Rosaries Dam on the Blue Nile and, to develop other irrigation and hydroelectric power generation until it fully utilizes its Nile share.
    • A Permanent Joint Technical Commission to be established to secure the technical cooperation between them.

Final solution for the Horn of Africa & Egypt : Melese Zenawie’s megalomaniac over 500 dams project will kill millions. This an Alarm to Stop Damming and Start small scale Geothermal Energy !!!

Ethiopianism Forum for Discussion

The projects of Melese Zenawie the Ethiopian megalomaniac dictator and his SS type equip to constructing over 500 dams all over Ethiopia is a final solution for the Nilotic Omotic ethnic members and the  Nile River with that of  Egypt. Ethiopia the  Tibet of Africa is also the source of 12 rivers flowing to Sudan, Egypt, Kenya, Djibouti and Somalia  it is  a country  full of Geothermal  nature friendly energy.  Touching one of these waters for dams or diverting their flows any kind of way or manner will cost a lot lives.  Melese’s  plan will be  Holocaust with creating a dramatic  water shortage in  the  horn of Africa and Egypt. The only  viable nature friendly solution is to stop the Dams and start a Geothermal power plants, since Ethiopia is endowed  more than any country in the world. And the money spent on these ddangeruios exterminating dams,will  easily cover one of the French Guadalupe Type Geothermal Plant.  Addis Ababa where power shortage is  chronic., the  city is setting on an  erupted  sleeping volcano and esy for planting geothermal plant.

Protest targets Italian government over Ethiopian dam disaster

Ethiopia aims to turn itself into a regional energy giant | World 
By admin
Ethiopia aims to turn itself into a regional energy giant The Gibe 3 dam on the Omo river will be Africas largest, providing power to a nation with one of.
Africa water news – http://africancleanwater.com/
Dr Richard Leakey

Dr. Richard Leakey in alarming distress... on the coming environmental catastrophe

Ethiopia political map

The Seven Plan of the Ethiopia water  Destruction by Dictator Melese Zenawie

1. Melese Zenawie’s  plan to build on the Nile a project called Tana Belse will eventually dry up the Nile while diminishing  dramatically the quantity of  water entering the Lake Tana. This will be like dried lakes in Gobi desert in less than a decade.  The two countries Egypt   and  Sudan are condemned  to be  aderet with out Nile  before they cand  declare Water War against Melese Zenawie.

Nile falls where is the Big Tissat falls today ?

The end the great Nile falls as we know it the water is diverted into dams and controlled..

Once upon a time there was the Nile and Egypt ...

2. Melese Zenawie’s dam project on the Gebe (I, II, II) or Omo River will kill all the Omotic people in Ethiopia and will dry up Lake Turkana, slowly eliminating the Nilotic Omotic population in both countries. He calls them insects to be marched on for his megalomaniac holocaustic plan. Watch the 2nd BBC video… Turning Turkana’s tap off

Dam ‘could spark water wars’ The Karo ethnic group lives near the Omo river

Omo River Omo River: Dugout canoe of the Karo tribe crossing the Omo River, Ethiopia

Melese will be in International Court only long  after the eradication of the Omo and Omotic people considered as insects to be smashed   by Melse and his group eager to make million  in their private account in the fiscals paradises !!!

3.Melese Zenawie’s Dam on Koka River will shrink the already drying Awash River and killing all the Afar population up unto Djibouti. (Impact of the koka reservoir on malaria)

photo:Bjørg Sandkjær

Dam menaced Awash River

httpvhd://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OMY3mbDZSBE

4. Melese Zenawie’s  Big plan for Shebelle ,Dawa, Gestro  and Genale Rivers will end up the last the only fresh drop of water rich to Somalia if any left. This is a dead blow for all the Somalian population and Somalia as we know it today.

The Great rivers to be dammed Genale and shebele

5. Melese Zenawie’s plan for Akobo and Baro  rivers  one and two will diminish the source of water going to the Southern Sudan and will hit the heartlands of the Nilotic of Dinkas and Anyu ak  (Annyuaks’s systematic elemination  by Genocidal Melese Zenawie has already started) population in Ethiopia and Southern Sudan.

Dam threaten River Baro

File:Baro river Gambela.jpg

6. Melese Zenawie’s crazy Dam in Tekeze will diminish the biggest Nile affluent, the Atbara River, thus halting the Nile from getting to Egypt.

Zekeze Dam the the Time Bomb for Egypt

7. Melese Zenawie’s will  be the king of Kings of drought and starvation to all Eastern Africa including Egypt by controlling the source,  flow  and flood  of  the only sweet water for all the population in these regions and drrying the river beds.

The May 23, 2010 election in Ethiopia with a result of 99.6% shows that his newly elected parilemnt members  will rubber stamp his Megalomaniac plans . And will fulfill  any secession ambition to any of the Ethnic regions in Ethiopia. This is bad precedent for the rest of the African continent full of Ethnic tension and conflicts.

httpvhd://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3WxzVmV_eIg

Text Box:

Melese’s Hxdro  Development of Hydropower in Eastern Africa

Name of Hydropower SchemeYear of Commissioning G.C.Installed Capacity (MW)Energy Production GWh/Year

Energy

AverageFirm
Aba Samuel*193261.5
TisAbay195311.56855
Koka196043.211080
Awash II196632165120
Awash III197132165120
Fincha1973100617613
Melka Wakena1989153560440
Sor199056048
Smaller Stations1.1554
1,7051480

The final Solution  Planned Hydropower

Name of ProjectProposed Years of ServiceEnergy (GWh/year)

Average                         Firm

Remarks
Gilgel Gibe1997 – 2002864670Under Construction
Chemoga Yeda1998 – 201530312526Pre-feasibility level
Upper Beles1998- 201516171100Advanced identification
Halel IWerabessa1998 – 201514751180Identification level
Aleltu1998 – 201535503484Pre-feasibility level
Tekeze1998 – 2002981Design level
Gojeb1998 – 2012364Works out for tender
Tis Abay II1998 – 1998359
Total10,664

httpvhd://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TLx2gZ3MICM

httpvhd://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5JdQD3u8bmo

The Best  Solution for Ethiopia

The only Solution for Ethiopia is not Dams but Geothermal pant Like  that of  French Guadalupe.

Geothermal energy is plenty across  Ethiopia’s Rift Valley may provide natural super heated steam may be  with out deep  drilling.  Hi own studay conirm that

“The potential of this steam for generating thermal power has been recommended and proved to be attractive. The geothermal potential of Ethiopia been estimated at about 4000 MW. This is said to be the highest potential for any country identified so far in Africa. The economic contribution that this resource might make to the energy economy of Ethiopia is expected to be great but needs to be studied and looked into in detail in a co ordinated manner with other forms of energy. ”

But Melese Zenawie preferes the Dams to make him the Dictators of waters. No one could  understand how the Africans choosed him to represent them in the envirmental conference. It is  a shame.. They even aplouded his election as being perfect in African slandered.

Afar Ethiopian Geothermal Future

Omo River Omo River: Tribes in the Omo Valley, Ethiopia

The Kara’s  & the Mursi’s guns will not deter Dictator Melese Zenawie for the moment… but how long?

Melese Zenawie’s Nile plan will kill the Nile and Egypt as we know it resulting to war and unprecedented conflict on water rights

The master architect of the New Nile agreement Melese Zenawie condemns the Nile to dry up and having irreversible effect by eventually   bringing an end to the civilization of Egypt as we know it today. He malignancy plays as a friend of Egypt and Sudan in one hand on the other he pumps out the Africans against one another to fulfill  his personal  big finical dam projects. His over 500 mega dams project will be also  the last blow to the Horn of Africa’s  fragile ecological equilibrium. Egypt and Sudan will be the 1st victim of such megalomaniac project. (Prof. Muse Tegegne)

The new agreement, the Nile Basin Co-operative Framework, is to replace a 1959 accord between Egypt and Sudan that gave them control of more than 90 per cent of the water flow.

hb8uybiu

Read Also:-

Egypt and Sudan oppose Nile deal | Black Africa

Analysis: Ten years of talks – and still no 

A stone’s throw from Nile, Egypt’s taps are running dry

Egyptians overlook the Nile, but have no water in the taps

Have the Nile, we’ll keep the trees

Ending the Nile water dispute

New Nile agreement a wake-up call for Egypt

Egypt says unilateral agreement on use of Nile water illegal and 

Image

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Egypt warns that new Nile agreement could prove a ‘death sentence’

Cairo has jealously guarded the riches of Africa’s longest river. Now poorer nations have had enough. Daniel Howden reports

Monday, 31 May 2010

Egypt’s arable land stretches out over the map of North Africa like a green kite on a desert background. The string uncoils northwards from the Aswan high dam until it reaches the Nile Delta, where it opens into a triangle to meet the Mediterranean Sea.

This narrow fertile strip, fed by the world’s longest river, is where Egypt lives. Eighty million people are crammed into less than five per cent of the land. In most of the country it never rains and 90 per cent of the water on which the civilisation that built the pyramids depends comes from the river.

As Herodotus observed in the 5th century BC, Egypt is a gift of the Nile. And it is a gift that Cairo has worked assiduously to ensure nobody takes it away.

Two treaties signed more than half a century ago gave Egypt the lion’s share of the water from the Nile. But those deals, so crucial to one country, also set up an epic imbalance of resources that has led analysts to look to this river system as the likely theatre for the first of the long-heralded water wars. Now a fresh crisis has emerged to threaten Cairo’s hegemony of this most political of rivers as five of the 10 Nile basin countries have signed up to a new agreement that would give them a greater share of the waters and has been greeted in the Egyptian press as a “death sentence”.

The White Nile rises in East Africa in Lake Victoria and drains through Uganda into Sudan where it meets in Khartoum with the Blue Nile flowing from Ethiopia’s Lake Tana.

An exchange of letters in the Egyptian capital between the British ambassador and the Prime Minister of Egypt on 7 May, 1929 was sufficient to conclude the Nile Water agreement.

It read: “No irrigation or power works are to be constructed on the River Nile or its tributaries, or on the lakes from which it flows… which would entail prejudice to the interests of Egypt.”

In other words Egypt had monopoly of the waters. On behalf of its colonial possessions – Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda – Britain, which was primarily concerned with the Suez Canal and the passage to India, had just signed away their most precious resource.

Egypt had the right to veto any project along the Nile and full rights of inspection. In 1959, this deal was overtaken by a new agreement between Egypt and Sudan splitting the waters 75 per cent to 25 per cent and guaranteeing Cairo “full control of the river”.

The results of this control are nowhere more clearly seen than at Lake Nasser, a man-made reservoir 550 kilometres long, created when Egypt completed the Aswan high dam. The country’s largest engineering project – constructed with Soviet assistance at the height of the Cold War — it took six years to build and another 5 years to fill.

Some 55.5 billion cubic metres of water gush from the Aswan dam into Egypt annually. It has enabled Cairo to regulate the life-giving annual flood, to irrigate its otherwise parched landscape, and at the point it was finished supplied half the country’s electricity needs.

With control of the Nile, Egypt’s agriculture has expanded fivefold in the ensuing years.

It also marks the effective border between downstream development and upstream poverty. Today, Egypt is approximately 10 times wealthier than Ethiopia. Militarily and economically it dwarfs every state on the banks of the river.

Without the water all this could change rapidly. “Egypt’s historic rights to Nile waters are a matter of life and death. We will not compromise them,” said Moufid Shehab, the Egyptian Minister of Legal Affairs.

Countries like Ethiopia, which accounts for 85 per cent of the river’s flow, never recognised the “colonial relic” treaties and are now seeking to right what they see as a historical wrong.

“Some people in Egypt have old-fashioned ideas based on the assumption that the Nile water belongs to Egypt,” Ethiopia’s premier Meles Zenawi said recently. “But the circumstances have changed and changed forever.”

Under pressure from upstream countries, Egypt agreed to take part in the Nile Basin initiative set up in Uganda’s Entebbe on the shore of Lake Victoria in 1999. While Cairo saw it as a talking shop with a mandate to share scientific data, the other states saw it as an opportunity to renegotiate the use of the Nile.

After a decade of talks with no sign of concessions from Egypt, five African countries – Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda – made their own agreement on more favourable terms than the six per cent of water currently allowed them.

“We’ve been grappling with this since the 80s, Egypt didn’t want anyone to talk about the Nile,” said a senior UN official close to the talks. “Egypt has really pissed off other countries and this time unless there’s a miracle they will have to give ground.”

The Aswan is no longer the only mega-dam on the river. Ethiopia this month opened the 460MW Tana Beles dam, which would have been considered an act of war in Sadat’s time. A string of new dams are planned to join the Beles on the Blue Nile. On the White Nile Uganda is opening the controversial Bujagali dam.

The new framework agreement has been rejected by Egypt and its ally Sudan – while Eritrea has signalled its support for Cairo. Burundi is expected to back the new deal as soon as the current elections are over and DR Congo is expected to ignore lobbying from Egypt and follow suit.

With support from seven of the 10 riparian, or riverside, states the deal could be ratified and backed by the African Union.

Even Sudan’s support could be split along with the country itself if the south votes to break away from Khartoum at a referendum expected early next year. Diplomats believe the newly established South Sudan would back its upstream neighbours, while some are expecting the new state to even call itself the Nile Republic.

Behind the heated rhetoric of death sentences and lifeblood most observers believe that the current crisis will be resolved politically rather than militarily. The era in which Egyptian foreign policy was based on backing insurgencies and destabilising its southern neighbours may have past. David Grey, a visiting professor at Oxford University and senior water advisor to the World Bank, says the Nile Basin initiative for all its failures suggests a future in which shared water resources could yoke together former adversaries rather than divide them.

But he also warns of the far bigger crisis that’s coming:

“If you add climate change and growing populations the future is a very unpredictable, risky one.”

The Nile Basin is home to countries with rapidly expanding populations. Egypt’s population is expected to reach 121 million by 2050. Uganda’s population is expected to double long before then. The number of Ethiopians is projected to increase from 83 million to 183 million.

The bigger question is not whether a more equitable sharing of the Nile can avert a war, but whether the overexploited river can continue to meet the growing demands placed on it.

The great drought of the late 1980s provided a possible answer to that question. In Egypt, the drought is remembered as the “great water crisis” where the water level at the Aswan high dam dropped dangerously by 1988. Agriculture and industrial output were hit drastically, severely depleting foreign exchange reserves and hitting economic growth. A similar crisis now could destabilise the government with unpredictable consequences.

In Ethiopia the drought is remembered for the accompanying famine in 1984-5 – severely exacerbated by civil conflict and disastrous government policies – that claimed hundreds of thousands of lives and brought the the country international attention.

Unless the current standoff is broken to provide for a unified management of the Nile basin for the first time then the next great drought could send the region back to the brink of a water war.

The Nile in literature

From John Keats’ ‘To The Nile’:

Nurse of swart nations since the world began,
Art thou so fruitful? or dost thou beguile
Such men to honour thee, who, worn with toil,
Rest for a space ‘twixt Cairo and Decan?

From ‘God dies by the Nile’ by Egyptian psychiatrist and writer Nawal El-Saadawi:

The light of dawn glimmered on the river, revealing the minute waves, like tiny wrinkles in an old, sad, silent face. Deep underneath, its waters seemed immobile, their flow as imperceptible as a moment of passing time, or the slow movement of the clouds in the dark sky.

From ‘Rhadopis of Nubia’, by Egyptian Nobel Prize winner Naguib Mahfouz:

They left their houses and hurried to the bank of the Nile to witness the first ripples, bearers of bounty and good fortune. The voice of the priest of Sothis resounded through Egypt’s still air, announcing the good news to the South: “Come celebrate the holy festival of the Nile!”

Uganda: Ethiopian led river Nile agreement signed without Egypt and Sudan

FRIDAY 14 MAY 2010 / BY GEOF MAGGA

River Nile basin states have today signed an agreement on the Nile river basin cooperative framework in which they agreed to collectively work towards conserving river Nile and equitably using it’s water.

This follows a statement made by Mohammed Allam, minister of water resources and irrigation that “Egypt reserves the right to take whatever course it sees suitable to safeguard its share,” while adding that the north African country saw the matter as a national security issue. “Egypt’s share of the Nile’s water is a historic right that Egypt has defended throughout its history,” Mohammed Allam had threatened.

But his Tanzanian counterpart explained that “Egypt and Sudan can always join the rest and sign the agreement since there is a provision of one year in which member countries can sign.”

Although Kenya’s minister of water did not turn up to sign the agreement, the county’s ambassador to Uganda, major general Henry Okange who represented his country at the signing ceremony said that the minster failed to turn up due to state duties.

The ambassador promised that the water minister would sign the agreement in the near future. “Kenya stands by the countries which have signed the agreement. The signing of the agreement is an initiative of equitable utilization of river Nile water by countries in the Nile basin which is good,” he said.

The Nile basin countries said they were tired of first getting permission from Egypt before using river Nile water for any development project like irrigation as required by a treaty signed during the colonial era between Egypt and Britain in 1929.

Led by Ethiopia, which contributes to over 80 per cent of the Nile’s water resource and yet enjoys an insignificant share, upper riparian countries among the Nile Basin countries have long sought an equitable share and a departure from pre-independent and colonial treaties. Egypt and Sudan alone enjoy 90 per cent of the Nile River’s water resource.

Negotiations between the ten countries of the Nile Basin Initiative to sign a Cooperative Framework Agreement (CFA) have been ongoing for at least 13 years. Last month,negotiations between Nile basin member countries stalled over Cairo’s refusal to give its stamp of approval to a new Nile water share plan that could see a reduction of its water quota. Sudan has always supported Egypt.

Geologist confirms: Dams Ethiopia the end of the world for Egypt

BY ahmed ibrahem ibrahem Buray 24/05/2010

Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, right, meets with President Joseph ...

Warned the Egyptian-American geologist known Rushdie Said the seriousness of Ethiopia to build dams on the Nile River for agriculture, “because this would be” the end of the world for Egypt, “he said.
He said that the crux of the problem of the Nile water back to a 1959 agreement made between Egypt and Sudan, according to which of countries sharing the Nile water comes from Ethiopia without leaving one centimeter to them.
Said revealed the numerous studies and books about the Nile River that there is a provision in the Convention states that “if requested by another part of the river the parties are negotiating to cede part of their share of this State.”
This came in a speech to a television program, against the backdrop of the signing of 5 African countries, the source of the Nile Basin countries of the seven, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya on a new framework agreement on the Nile River city of Entebbe, Uganda without the consent of Cairo and Khartoum.
For his part, suggested that Sudanese politician and veteran former prime minister Sadiq al-Mahdi solution to the problem of sharing the Nile waters is based on the use of vast territories in the Sudan, the optimal use in integrated farming “farmers” to meet the needs of all the Nile Basin countries willing to share water, in order to meet the burden fulfill the needs of the population food security in all these countries, including Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia.
Which he considered Rushdie Said solution is unacceptable, “would detract from Egypt’s share in the Nile water, barely meet the needs of the Egyptian people note that Egypt does not have the alternative water resources in their possession the rest of the Nile Basin.”
He said that the best solution to this problem is a special formula weighing this matter and give Ethiopia the right to some of the water that comes from them,
At the same time pointed out that Egypt’s quota of Nile water amounting to 55.5 billion cubic meters, although it seems large quantity, but barely enough to cover the requirements of present-day Egypt in mind what the future?
And Dr. Rushdi Said Egyptian immigrant to the United States, which was celebrated from the days of ninetieth birthday, that Ethiopia has a lot of other water sources that are supposed to meet their needs,
Speaking for no other reasons hidden behind the right to ask Ethiopia to the Nile water is, the rejection of the Convention on the Egyptian-Sudanese since more than fifty years.

Nile African or Arab? The looming War

World map

Avoiding a Water War in the Nile Basin

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Dar says ‘No’ as row over Nile heats up

May 17th, 2010

Tanzania yesterday rejected insistence by Egypt and Sudan that the new agreement on the Nile River Basin Co-operative Framework should recognise the two countries’ current Nile water uses and rights.

With the Nile’s total flow of 84 cubic metres, Egypt gets 55.5 billion cubic metres of the water annually and Sudan gets 18.5 billion cubic metres under uses and rights based on old colonial agreements which have long been rejected by seven Nile Basin member states as invalid.

The seven members are Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

The new agreement, which was signed on May 14 by four countries, including Tanzania, out of the 10 Nile Basin states, establishes principles governing the use, management, development and conservation of the Nile water resources and details the rights and obligations of Basin states.

The Minister for Water and Irrigation, Prof Mark Mwandosya, told a news conference in Dar es Salaam that Tanzania recognised the sensitivity of water security to Egypt and Sudan, but access to the waters of the Nile River was a key requirement for the existence of all Basin Nile States.

He said the bone of contention was Article 14 (b) of the agreement which states: “…not to significantly affect the water security of any other Nile Basin state”, adding that all countries agreed to this proposal except Egypt and Sudan.

The minister said Egypt proposed that the article should have been replaced by the wording… “not to adversely affect the water security and current uses and rights of any other Nile Basin state.”

“This is not acceptable,” said Prof Mwandosya, adding that Tanzania and the other six Nile Basin countries of Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Ethiopia and DRC had tried for over 10 years to negotiate for an agreement that was acceptable to all member countries.

Asked whether the position shown by Egypt and Sudan pointed to water wars among Nile Basin states, Prof Mwandosya said: “I don’t think that the situation we’re facing could cause water wars. But I think water will make us to be more united. And we’re on the right course.”

He said Tanzania would use its international stature to continue dialoguing with Egypt and Sudan so as to uphold the One Nile philosophy that has been cultivated over the years.

He said Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Ethiopia signed the Nile River Basin Co-operation Framework agreement in Entebbe, Uganda on May 14, adding that Kenya promised to sign the deal soon while Burundi and the DRC expected to follow suit.

Prof Mwandosya said the agreement would remain open for one year until May 13, 2011 during which countries may initiate ratification process respective to each country’s Constitution and procedures.

The Nile River Basin is shared by 10 countries of Tanzania, DRC, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Egypt, Sudan and Eritrea. Its waters have been used for millennia.

Stretching more than 6,600 kilometres from Lake Victoria to the Mediterranean, the Nile is a vital water and energy source for the countries through which it flows

Uganda to continue Rive Nile talks

New Vision – Gerald Tenywa – ‎18 hours ago‎
UGANDA will continue negotiating with Egypt and Sudan, which are still opposed to signing the Nile Cooperative Framework Agreement, 
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Egypt insists new Nile treaty is non-binding

Daily Monitor – ‎18 hours ago‎
By Evelyn Lirri (email the author) Egypt has described as non-binding a new agreement signed by four African countries on how to equitably manage resources 

Taipei Times – ‎May 15, 2010‎

Four east African countries sign 

new deal creating a permanent commission to manage the River Nile’s w
aters on Friday, putting them on a collision 
Financial Times – William WallisHeba Saleh – ‎May 14, 2010‎

Upriver Nile countries sign compact for water use

The Associated Press – Godfrey Olukya – ‎May 14, 2010‎
Four East African states have signed an agreement to seek more water from the River Nile – a move strongly opposed by Egypt and Sudan. BBC News – ‎May 14, 2010‎
Al Jazeera – ‎May 14, 2010‎
A controversial deal has been signed to share the waters of the world’s longest river. But Egypt and Sudan are not happy at four African countries signing a 

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Times LIVE (blog) – ‎May 14, 2010‎
The river Nile cuts through many African countries, but they cannot enjoy the waters because of some stupid 1929 colonial-era treaty singed by Britain 

Four African countries sign new Nile treaty

AFP – ‎May 14, 2010‎
ENTEBBE, Uganda — Four African countries on Friday signed a new treaty on the equitable sharing of the Nile waters despite strong opposition from Egypt and 

Nile agreement to be signed today

New Vision – ‎May 14, 2010‎
Delegations from seven of the nine Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) member countries intend to disregard an Egypt-Sudan boycott and move forward with the signing 
Daily Nation – Walter Menya – ‎May 13, 2010‎

Water ministers of five countries meet in Entebbe on Friday with the signing of the Nile treaty on the utilisation of the world’s longest

CAIRO — A senior EU envoy urged seven east African countries on Thursday to settle differences with Egypt and Sudan over sharing the waters of the Nile 
New Vision – ‎May 13, 2010‎
African countries on the upper reaches of the River Nile plan to push their demand for changes in the allocation of its waters, saying Egypt gets too great

Global Insider: The Nile River Basin

WPR: What is the current status quo of water use in the Nile River basin? Wolf: The last actual treaty signed on the basin is one between Egypt and Sudan 

New Nile pact, but old problems remain – Ethiopia

By Staff Reporter Four of the upper Nile Basin riparian countries signed a new Nile water sharing treaty on Friday May 14, 2010 that could reverse the May 

From Unknown to Uncertain: Nile Water Negotiations

A major factor in the absence of a workable peace and security order in Northeast Africa is the unresolved issue of the Nile Waters and regional power order 

Monday’s papers: Nile basin tension, Shura coverage

Al-Masry Al-Youm – Hazem Zohny – ‎

State-run papers lead with reports of yesterday’s meeting in Sharm el-Sheikh between President Hosni Mubarak and Kuwaiti Emir Sabah al-Ahmad al-Jabar ..

Egyptians discuss response to Ethiopian dam

Al-Masry Al-Youm – Metwali Salem – ‎

Ethiopia’s announcement on Friday of the inauguration of its new Tana Beles dam aimed to provoke Egypt’s anger and lead it to taking swift diplomatic 

The Nile: More discord in prospect

Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania agreed on the sharing of the Nile waters, in spite of the boycott of Egypt and Sudan, and signed an agreement – in 

Egypt and Sudan Say No to Nile Basin Agreement

WATER SUPPLY: Uganda’s Minister for Water and Environment Maria Mutagamba (L) and Uganda’s Deputy Foreign Minister Isaac Musumba, 

Egypt eyes diplomatic action to resolve Nile Basin dispute

A senior Egyptian official said Sunday the coming weeks are to see intensive diplomatic actions by Cairo to resolve a water dispute which has for long 

The Spokesman: Egypt will not join or sign any agreement that violates its

Spokesman for the Foreign Ministry stated that the signing of a water cooperation agreement among some countries at the source of the Nile Basin does not 

Egyptian economists reject Eritrea’s supports Egypt over Ethiopia on Nile 

Sunday’s papers: Nile Basin media frenzy

All the newspapers lead today with coverage of the what is being called the “Nile river crisis.” The media frenzy comes in response to a water-sharing 

Egypt objects to new Nile basin agreement signed in Uganda

Egypt Sunday objected to a new agreement signed by four Nile Basin countries in Uganda for changing the way the river waters are shared, even as the deal 

Sudan Rejects Establishment of Commission

Minister of Irrigation and Water Resources Engineer Kamal Ali Mohamed has reiterated Sudan’s rejection to establishment of a commission that does not 

Nile Waters: Only A Partial Agreement

Only four countries – Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania – have signed, in Entebbe, Uganda, an agreement to share the management of the waters of the 

Upriver Nile Countries Sign New Nile Treaty Without Down-river Countries

4 Nile Basin countries sign water agreement

EGYPT: Cairo scoffs at new Nile water agreement

Los Angeles Times (blog) – ‎May 15, 2010‎

Egypt, the largest user of Nile River water, has played down the importance of a new Nile Basin Cooperative Framework agreement that could limit how much 

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Egypt, the largest user of Nile River water, has played down the importance of a new Nile Basin Cooperative Framework agreement that could limit how much water flows into the country.

The treaty, signed Friday by Rwanda, Ethiopia, Uganda and Tanzania in the Ugandan city of Entebbe, will replace a 1959 agreement that secured Egypt its historic rights of Nile waters (55.5 billion cubic meters of water each year). Egypt and Sudan boycotted the meeting and have filed objections to the agreement.

The new treaty comes after the collapse of negotiations between the river’s source countries, including Rwanda, Ethiopia and Uganda, and the downstream nations, Egypt and Sudan, during a convention in Sharm el Sheik last month. Egypt, however, is unfazed by the new accord.

“Egypt and Sudan will not be legally committed to any agreements signed in their absence. The new treaty doesn’t mean anything to both countries,” Moufid Shehab, Egyptian Minister of Legal and Parliamentary Affairs, was quoted as saying by MENA news agency.

“We don’t want to view it [the treaty] as a destructive act, but we never hoped this would happen because it completely goes beyond the frame of cooperation,” he added.

Nile upstream countries, which also include the Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi and Kenya, have long demanded a new pact to regulate an equitable sharing of Nile waters. They also oppose Egypt’s veto power on new irrigation projects in their nations, a right granted to Egypt by a colonial agreement signed with Great Britain in 1929. Such changes could reduce how much water flows into Egypt before the 4,163-mile river reaches the Mediterranean Sea.

While the Democratic Republic of Congo and Burundi were not represented during Friday’s accord, Kenya issued a statement of support and announced its willingness to sign the treaty as soon as possible. Egyptian experts have previously warned that jeopardizing the country’s shares of Nile water could expose Egypt to a serious water crisis within the next few years.

China the Asia Pacific river hug assumes the full responsibility for the destruction of the Omotic People in Ethiopia by financing a dictator and drying Omo river

Kenyan tribes protest dam construction

East Africa’s Looming Famine – Gibe III
Huffington Post
But given the instance of drought in Ethiopia – plaguing the country for six  lending to conflict, famine, disease, as well as the artificial creation of 

ENVIRONMENT: Blame on Chinese Dams Rise as Mekong River Dries Up

17 Mar 2010  As the water level in the Mekong River dips to a record 50-year low, a familiar pattern of fault-finding has risen to the surface. China

China’s Three Gorges Dam: An Environmental Catastrophe

Three Gorges Dam is a disaster in the making, China admits – Times .

China halts £20bn dam project – Telegraph

12 Jun 2009 China has suspended a £20bn hydropower project because of environmental concerns, in a sign of the growing power of the country’s green 

Three Gorges Dam in China

Mekong nations meet China over dam fears


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IRIN Africa | ETHIOPIA-KENYA: Dam “busters” say Gibe 3 puts 

7 Apr 2010 “Lake Turkana receives [80-90] percent of its water from the River Omo; thus the impacts of the dam on the lake and the people who depend on 

Omo Valley Tribes – Survival International

Giant dam to devastate 200000 tribal people in Ethiopia – Survival 

Ethiopia lands Chinese loan approval for mega Gilgel Gibe III hydro-power project

A Chinese loan has been secured for Ethiopia’s biggest Hydropower project, Gilgel Gibe III, after years of pressure from foreign environmentalists blocked access to funding from international financial institutions.

activist groups have however expressed misgivings over the project and insisted that it would adversely impact the livelihood of the surrounding communities in both Ethiopia and Kenya.

httpvhd://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xa5tTu4_D6s

Chinese government has approved a 500 million dollar loan to cover the project’s electro and hydro mechanical costs.

Gibe, which is to have a 1.8MW power generating capacity, is expected to cost Ethiopia some 1.7 billion euros. A colossal sum for the poor east African country to shoulder alone. In 2006, it requested a loan from European Investment Bank (EIB), African Development Bank (AfDB) and Italian Government in 2006.

The militants embarked on dissuasive strategies including lobbying to put pressure on international financial institutions prevent funding for the project. According to them the dam will minimize the volume of water that flows into Lake Turkana from the Omo river.

This financial challenge prompted Ethiopia to shift its focus from Western finance sources. China has agreed to provide the loan (500 million dollars) on a long term basis.

httpvhd://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T-21Rbju3Ck

The agreement reached between Ethiopia and China will see the former offer Gibe’s electro and hydro mechanical works to China.

In line with this agreement, Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation (EEPCo) is expected to sign a deal Wednesday evening with Dongfang Electric Machinery Corporation ltd, a Chinese state owned company.

Dongfang Electric Machinery Corporation ltd takes over Gibe’s electro and hydro mechanical work from Salini Construction an Italian Company appointed in 2006 to handle the engineering procurement contract of the project.

httpvhd://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8HAhkGzgMBc

The Chinese loan could also see Ethiopia reject AfDB’s loan approval, according to government sources.

activist groups have however expressed misgivings over the project and insisted that it would adversely impact the livelihood of the surrounding communities in both Ethiopia and Kenya.

The militants embarked on dissuasive strategies including lobbying to put pressure on international financial institutions prevent funding for the project. According to them the dam will minimize the volume of water that flows into Lake Turkana from the Omo river.

This financial challenge prompted Ethiopia to shift its focus from Western finance sources. China has agreed to provide the loan (500 million dollars) on a long term basis.

The agreement reached between Ethiopia and China will see the former offer Gibe’s electro and hydro mechanical works to China.

In line with this agreement, Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation (EEPCo) is expected to sign a deal Wednesday evening with Dongfang Electric Machinery Corporation ltd, a Chinese state owned company.

Dongfang Electric Machinery Corporation ltd takes over Gibe’s electro and hydro mechanical work from Salini Construction an Italian Company appointed in 2006 to handle the engineering procurement contract of the project.

The Chinese loan could also see Ethiopia reject AfDB’s loan approval, according to government sources.

China’s new dam seen as a water hog

By Calum MacLeod, USA TODAY

XIAOWAN, China — Wearing cloaks of tree bark strands, villagers from the Yi ethnic minority tend wheat terraces that cascade downhill toward the riverbank.

Still under construction, the 66-story-high Xiaowan dam is scheduled to be completed this year. Other countries accuse China of stealing water.

“China’s dams have not caused this problem,” says Jeremy Bird, CEO of the Mekong River Commission, an organization that helps manage the river’s resources for Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam.

But China’s refusal to provide data to the commission on the dams already is raising suspicions among analysts. This month, a Chinese delegation to the commission promised deeper cooperation but stopped short of adding to a promise to provide hydrological data for two smaller Yunnan dams.

“The Chinese must come clean on how much water they are diverting at Xiaowan and, in the future, at Nuozhadu,” another dam that will boast an even bigger reservoir, says Alan Potkin, a development specialist at the Center for Southeast Asian Studies at Northern Illinois University.

Xiaowan is “an enormously large dam, bigger than anything in North America,” says Potkin, who worries that in two years’ time both Xiaowan and Nuozhadu could be filling reservoirs simultaneously. Potkin is urging the commission to ask China for the most critical data. But he knows the board can do little if China refuses. “It has very little leverage at all,” he says.

Journalists have been kept at bay at Xiaowan. A USA TODAY reporter was held up by police for three hours while trying to get to the site and then refused entry.

By Calum MacLeod, USA TODAY Farmer Xu Piqing says he and fellow Shuanghe villagers should be busy harvesting crops, "but instead we have nothing to do" because of the drought.

By Calum MacLeod, USA TODAY
Farmer Xu Piqing says he and fellow Shuanghe villagers should be busy harvesting crops, “but instead we have nothing to do” because of the drought.

Local residents dispute that the drought stems from natural causes.

Here in Yunnan province, White Fish Pond hasn’t seen fish for years, says Bi Xiuxian, who heads a small hydropower station on the Weishan River. For the past half-year, the river has hardly seen any water, either. So the privately owned power plant in the village of Lishimo is idle.

“Poor management of water facilities is definitely a major reason for this drought,” complains Bi, an ethnic Yi. “We need new wells, better management of old wells, and more maintenance of water canals.”

“China is developing so

quickly and needs a lot of

energy, but nature is not

just for humans.”

— Wang Yongchen, environmentalist

Elders pray for rain

China’s thirst for energy will likely keep the projects moving forward without much look back, say activists.

“We need time to see the real results,” says Wang Yongchen, founder of Green Earth Volunteers, an environmental group, who has monitored China’s dam-building for several years. “China is developing so quickly and needs a lot of energy, but nature is not just for humans.”

In Shuanghe village, Nanjian County, Yunnan province, farmer Xu Piqing stands on a bridge above the now-dry water canal that usually rushes into the Weishan River.

“We should be busy now, harvesting corn and beans, but instead we have nothing to do,” says Xu, 43.

Some villagers are taking action, though.

This month, more than 100 elders will gather to pray for rain on the hilltop, lighting incense and kowtowing to the earth. It’s an annual ritual, but “this year will be the biggest ever,” Xu says.

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stevenbensonphoto.com

  • Three Gorges Dam Campaign is now featured on Google Earth!

The Three Gorges Dam is the world’s largest hydropower project and most notorious dam. The massive project sets records for number of people displaced (more than 1.2 million), number of cities and towns flooded (13 cities, 140 towns, 1,350 villages), and length of reservoir (more than 600 kilometers). The project has been plagued by corruption, spiraling costs, technological problems, human rights violations and resettlement difficulties.

The environmental impacts of the project are profound, and are likely to get worse as time goes on. The submergence of hundreds of factories, mines and waste dumps, and the presence of massive industrial centers upstream are creating a festering bog of effluent, silt, industrial pollutants and rubbish in the reservoir. Erosion of the reservoir and downstream riverbanks is causing landslides, and threatening one of the world’s biggest fisheries in the East China Sea. The weight of the reservoir’s water has many scientists concerned over reservoir-induced seismicity. Since 2007, Chinese scientists and government officials have become increasingly concerned about the environmental and social impacts of the project.

The Three Gorges Dam is a model for disaster, yet the Chinese government is replicating this model both domestically and internationally. Within China, huge hydropower cascades have been proposed and are being constructed in some of China’s most pristine and biologically and culturally diverse river basins – the Lancang (Upper Mekong) River, Nu (Salween) River and upstreamof Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River and tributaries.

Governments and companies from around the world have helped fund and build the Three Gorges Dam. Yet through this project, China has acquired the know-how to build large hydropower schemes, and is now exporting similar projectsaround the world.

While Three Gorges is the world’s biggest hydro project, the problems at Three Gorges are not unique. Around the world, large dams are causing social and environmental devastation while better alternatives are being ignored.

International Rivers protects rivers and defends the rights of the communities which depend on them. We monitor the social and environmental problems of the Three Gorges Dam, and work to ensure that the right lessons are drawn for energy and water projects in China and around the world.

Learn more about the problems with large dams and the global movement to protect rivers and rights.