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Commen DNA

Fossilized Ethiopians came by Creation or Evolution…

The recent discovery in Ethiopia a fossil more than 3m proving that human “ ancestors” supposedly  walking upright just by finding   a single  fourth metatarsal bone in Ethiopia. Like Lucy and Ardi recently has opened the debate that humans being is the outcome of Creation or Evolution more live. The majority of Ethiopians believe  firmly in creation and they do  not  even know who Charles  Darwin was leave alone his “Theory of Evolution.” The main diffrence between a Creationist  and an  Evolutionist  could be simplified philosophically   being – I Believe and – I Think.

Researchers are hopeful that more such remains may be found as excavations continue. This specimen is being added to the growing list of species which existed 2 to 3.5 million years ago and are clearly either modern primate or modern human, one of which may have been our ancestors.

However, Creationists reject all of this. According to creationism, humans sprouted fully-formed in our current state, as did all animal “kinds” not of «species” according Evolutionists.  Like the “Theory of Evolution” the protagonist use developed their argument as a «Creation Theory”. The evolutionists criticize the creationists saying that they are a religiously motivated political movement, which is why they publish all of their “research” directly to the general public rather than letting other scientists subject it to peer review. The later argues that is why creationism enjoys more than 50% support from the American public while languishing at less than 1% among scientists.

According to the creationist  life rather than having begin in very simple forms – proteins, bacteria, algae, etc., and then gradually evolve into more complex forms to become specious rather  creatures started out as distinct and separate organisms when God created them. Although these distinct creatures have the capability to adapt to their surroundings to a certain extent, Creationists do not believe that they change into completely different and distinct animals through evolution. Creationists affirm that single-celled organisms did not evolve into more complex plants and animals, finally culminating in modern Homo sapiens.


Creationists brought out the following 5 main weaknesses in the scientific evidence of the evolutionists-


  1. They recognize  many  evidences for adaptive changes in species (microevolution), there is no  in recorded history see one species becoming an entirely different, more highly evolved organism;  a fish becoming an amphibian or even a bacteria evolving into anything other than a bacteria;
  2. The Darwinian  fossil record does not show the gradual changes as predicted;
  3. Errors in carbon dating and other methods has been seen though widely  used to determine the age of fossils and the Earth itself;
  4. Though DNA and RNA comparisons between similar and dissimilar species at times confirm evolution, but in other circumstances are inconsistent. To this day the DNA count for chimpanzee the closest ape and man does not even much 42/46…
  5. For the creationists ,Charles Darwin’s “ Theory of Evolution «is as much theory as is the theory of gravity, or the theory of relativity. Unlike theories of physics, biological theories, and especially evolution, have been argued long and hard in socio-political arenas. Even today, evolution is not often taught in primary schools. Creationist accepts that evolution is the binding force of all biological research as unifying theme. Especially in paleontology evolution helps as methodology a powerful way to organize the remains of past life and better understand the one history of life not to change creation. For creationists , evolution as a history of thought about evolution in general and paleontological contributions specifically are often useful to the workers of today helping science in a  iterative process, draws heavily from its history.

According the evolutionists the ancestors of humans were walking upright more than 3m years ago, according to an analysis of a fossilized foot bone found in Ethiopia. The fossil, the fourth metatarsal bone from the species Australopithecus aphaeresis, shows that this forerunner of early humans had a permanently arched foot like modern humans, a key requirement for an upright gait.

Arches in human feet put a spring in our step: they are stiff enough to propel us forward but flexible enough to absorb the shock at the end of each stride.

It is thought that A. aphaeresis could walk on two feet but were unsure whether the creatures climbed and grasped tree branches as well, much like modern nonhuman apes. The fourth metatarsal according the new discovery shows that  afarensis moved around more like modern humans.

“Now that we know Lucy and her relatives had arches in their feet, this affects much of what we know about them, from where they lived to what they ate and how they avoided predators,” said Carol Ward, a professor of integrative anatomy at the University of Missouri-Columbia who led the analysis of the fossil.

“The development of arched feet was a fundamental shift toward the human condition, because it meant giving up the ability to use the big toe for grasping branches, signaling that our ancestors had finally abandoned life in the trees in favor of life on the ground.”

The best-known example of A. afarensis is “Lucy”, who lived in Ethiopia more than 3m years ago. Before that, more than 4.4m years ago, Ethiopia was populated by Ardipithecus ramidus, which seems to have been a part-time terrestrial biped, though its foot had many of the features of tree-dwelling primates, including a highly mobile big toe.

Unlike other primates, human feet have two arches, which stretch along the length of the foot and across it. Ape feet do not have these arches and are far more flexible, with a mobile large toe that is useful for climbing trees and holding onto branches.

These ape-like features are not present in the foot of A. afarensis, however. Given that its foot was more like that of modern humans; scientists think that A. afarensis no longer depended on the trees for refuge or resources 3m years ago.

“Arches in the feet are a key component of human-like walking because they absorb shock and also provide a stiff platform so that we can push off from our feet and move forward,” said Ward. “People today with ‘flat feet’ who lack arches have a host of joint problems throughout their skeletons. Understanding that the arch appeared very early in our evolution shows that the unique structure of our feet is fundamental to human locomotion.

“If we can understand what we were designed to do and the natural selection that shaped the human skeleton, we can gain insight into how our skeletons work today. Arches in our feet were just as important for our ancestors as they are for us. For paleontologist these findings confirm that our human ancestors were walking on two legs by about 3.2m years ago.

While  bipedal locomotion or two-legged walking is one of the hallmarks of the human species, older human fossils still show adaptations to spending some of their time in the trees … for feeding or nesting, but the evidence here suggests that by 3.2m years ago one of our ancestors, Australopithecus afarensis, was fully committed to bipedal walking.”

The debate on the Creationist evolutionist continues so long as the missing link between specious is large and the creatures will contuse to maintain their theory of creation to stand on the firm ground on their milliner believes.

Ethiopia a land of 5 million orphans. Where is mother Ethiopia? “Child body trafficking is a mainstay in the African capital Addis Ababa “

Ethiopia a land of 5 million orphans. Where is mother Ethiopia? “Child body trafficking is a mainstay in the African capital Addis Ababa ” Prof. Muse Tegegne

Ethiopia the land of   Queen of Sheba, it was left bankrupt by years of civil war, drought, floods, famine, and disease have pushed many over 5 millions  of Ethiopian children are today motherless because their parents are either no longer living or are unable to care for them.

A number of U.S.-based adoption agencies have been authorized by the Government of Ethiopia to provide adoption services, and several others pending accreditation. The government office responsible for adoptions in Ethiopia is the Adoption Team in the Children and Youth Affairs Office (CYAO), which is under the Ministry of Women’s Affairs (MOWA).   Symbolically  the fostering families  are  required  to submit post-placement reports until the child turns 18, very few are respecting them once the got the child.

Adoption from Ethiopia is open to any body while a country like thiland are banning due to chile abuse. Adoptions to both the U.S. and Canada have increased notably. In the U.S. the numbers were 1,725 in 2008, vs. 1,255 in 2007.

According to US/ Canadian agencies  “135 Ethiopian children adopted into Canada in 2007 (latest year available) represented 74 more than the year before, an increase of 121%. A Sept. 13, 2008 Toronto Star article “Doors closing on foreign adoptions” stated, “Some estimate that, because of AIDS and catastrophic drought, there may be 5 million Ethiopian orphans by 2010.”

Embracing Ethiopia – International adoption, parenting issues and 
Last year on July 4th, a little baby all the way in Ethiopia consumed our thoughts! Last year, we walked to the fireworks and talked about how next year, Mekonen would get to be with us. Crazy how a year from then has passed and for the 

“The children are beautiful. Children waiting for placement are male and female, infant to 15 years old, healthy as well as special needs. Single birth and sibling groups are available. Many children have resided in a local orphanage, community care or in the hospital of birth prior to being matched with a family. The children are tested for HIV, Hepatitis B, Tuberculosis and Venereal Disease prior to being placed.”

httpvhd://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_YOOMipSnaE

Today the  adoptions and foster  service providers in Ethiopia has greatly increased. Fews agencies comprehend  the  existing laws and inconsistent policies  among various agencies has caused confusion leading to unprecedented corruption leading to child trafficking.

Recent servant proved anomaly in the adoption policy  and its program in Ethiopia.  The government   nominaly put the follwing  non functionla policy to sell the childern of Ethiopia as a market comedity to the world:-

• Heterosexual couples (with or without children) who have been
married at least 3 years

• Those who have good medical insurance that will immediately
cover your child once he/she is adopted

• Families who have sufficient income

• Couples with a strong marriage and low divorce history

• Not more than 45 years older than the youngest child you adopt

• No history of criminal activity or incidence of child abuse


                • Adoption Advocates International
                • All God’s Children International
                • America World Adoption Association
                • Bethany Christian Services
                • Celebrate Children, Intl
                • Children’s Home Society and Family Services
                • Children’s Hope International
                • Children’s House International
                • WACAP
                • Wide Horizons for Children

Today  many foster familes are complaing the price an Ethiopian child  high in the market .

A  organizations  are set to help these familes to cover the offical price . The worst is the corrupted officals and middle men who makes  on every child. Many kids are  there on the under ground child traficing markets . Some are even sold in black market for body part  trafficking . Apart from abandoned children, there is also a steady increase in the number of Ethiopian children becoming orphans because of Aids.

There are nearly 40 agencies in Addis Ababa handling adoptions.

While we cannot change the fact that adopting internationally is expensive without any kind of adoption financial aid, we are concerned that the expenses often make adopting prohibitive for wonderful families desiring to love a child.”

httpvhd://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v0Mrb70TzZE

In 2008, U.S. citizens adopted approximately 1,725 children from Ethiopia. Children of all ages are available for adoption including infants, sibling groups, multiples (twins and even triplets), older and special needs children, both boys and girls. These children reside in orphanages.

  • Children six months to 14 years of age.
  • Both boys and girls are available for adoption. First time parents should be flexible in regards to gender selection.
  • Children are generally healthy, but may have parasites and other treatable conditions caused due to living conditions. Children are tested – at minimum — for HIV/AIDS, and Hepatitis and several other conditions. Special needs children are available.
  • Many older sibling groups are available.



 Ethiopian kids arriving to the US
Fiscal Year       Number of Immigrant Visas Issued
2009                                 2277
2008                                 1724
2007                                 1254
2006                                   731
2005                                   440
2004                                   289
2003                                   135
2002                                   105

httpvhd://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UqELtNLEtTA

  • Adopted orphan abroad

Most of the parents are from abroad. The adoption of Ethiopian children by foreigners has increased sharply in the past few years, with thousands of parents from various parts of the Western world adopting children from this impoverished country.

Kids Care Orphanage is just one of the numerous orphanages and child care centres in the Ethiopian capital.

Mostly abandoned children and mutilated child bodies are  found in the  dark alleys of the African capital . You will  be surprised  at times even in toilets  a cry of a motherless child.

Some are licensed by the Ethiopian authorities, who claim Ethiopian orphans have a right to be adopted, but they practiced daily  sending  hundreds abroad  knowing it must be  a last resort since it is preferable for child to be brought up in their own culture. There are many  who are engaged in child traficing and body marketing too.

Very few are  orphans who merit a well  publicized adoptions, movie star Angelina Jolie adopted an Ethiopian child with the help of  a well known agency  ” Wide Horizons for Children”.

Today  many  local agencies  are are highly corrupted working cladestaily with child traficaing mafias  as a million dollar business.

Officially the process of adopting children from Ethiopia is much simpler than many other country today due to this wicked corruption.

In one of the most well-publicised adoptions, movie star Angelina Jolie adopted an Ethiopian child with the help of an agency called Wide Horizons for Children.

The  adoptive parents are asked  come personally and collect the child. This the moment  they will go to a lot  of unprecedented corruption methods and red tapes. The government has put it  mandatory the foster  the parents to stay at least two weeks in Ethiopia to study the culture. They will in the contrary have  the necessary time  to learn something about Ethiopia’s corrupted adoption and child trafficking  system. Adoption in Ethiopia has not been without international  controversy. It has been well described  as being   a center of child trafficking and body marketing flown out directely to the international Kideny and other body banks. It is a million dollar business. Many  preferred silence not to be a spot light on media and loss a lot of dollars fro the extradition of the motherless child.  Our investigation as proved that most of the adopted one have  one or two of their parents. The true orphans are lingushing in the orphanage waiting for adoption if they  do not fail in the hands of body or child  trafficking mafias those with connection or some relatives in Europe or America end up to be adopted as orphans.


[Ethiopia Adoption]

Ethiopian Child: U.S. Adoption Agency Bought Me

CBS News Investigates Serious Questions about the Legitimacy of Some Ethiopian Adoptions

(CBS) Videotapes showing poor orphans from third world countries melt the hearts of prospective parents every day in this country.

Three children, sisters from Ethiopia are shown in a video – ages, you are told, 7, 4 and 6. Their mother is dead, their father dying of AIDS. A life of prostitution is all but assured – if not adopted – saved – by a loving American family.

It was just such a pitch that spoke to Katie and Calvin Bradshaw, reports CBS News chief investigative correspondent Armen Keteyian. They adopted all three girls through a U.S. agency, Christian World Adoption.

“Aside from the gender of the children, everything else proved to be a complete lie,” said Katie.

In truth, the three sisters, Journee, Maree and Meya – were actually much older: 13, 6 and 11.

While their mother was dead, their father was healthy and very much alive. He was living, by local standards, a middle-class life – an extended family able to take care of the girls as middle sister Meya showed us first hand.

“My godmothers, my aunt, those are my mom’s friends, my uncles, my dad, my dad’s friends, that’s my brother,” she said.

In the last year adoptions from Ethiopia to the U.S. have skyrocketed – growing faster than any other country in the world. They have risen from 731 in 2006 to more than 2,200 last year. That’s nearly six children per day.

Now a CBS News investigation has discovered that growth has turned Ethiopia into fertile ground for child trafficking – a country in which some American agencies and their staff engage in highly questionable conduct.

Adoptive families allege that many children brought to the U.S. are not even orphans, that prospective parents are misled about a child’s health and background, that local families are recruited – and sometimes even paid – to give up their kids.

Which the Bradshaw sisters say is exactly what happened to them.


Watch CBS News Videos Online

“Your dad was paid,” Keteyian asked Meya.

“Yes,” she said.

“From Christian World Adoption,” Keteyian asked.

“Yeah,” she replied.

“For you to be adopted?”

“Yup.”

“You were sold?”

“Yeah,” she said.

Christian World Adoption is one of 70 agencies licensed to operate in Ethiopia. Beyond the alleged payment to their father, the Bradshaw sisters say they were told by local employees of Christian World they were only coming to America for an education; that they could return home when school was out. Not true. In fact it’s virtually impossible to reverse an adoption in Ethiopia.

“I thought I was going to be kind of like an exchange student,” Journee said. “Honestly, I never knew that I’m going to be here forever.”

“We have watched our kids grieve and cry and scream and melt down from the bottom of their souls over the loss of their country and their family,” Katie Bradshaw said.

A 2007 video shows Christian World representatives entering an Ethopian village and appearing to recruit children from poor villagers – an unethical practice against Ethopian law.

“If you want your child to be adopted by a family in America you may stay,” said Michelle Gardner. She spoke those words on a tape produced by Christian World for American parents seeking to adopt in Ethiopia. And now says she deeply regrets it.

“I was aware of a number of times when things were problematic,” she said. “And several families where children came over and the children didn’t understand that the adoption was permanent.”

Christian World was founded back in 1991 by Bob and Tomilee Harding. In 2008, records show, the non-profit agency took in nearly $6 million dollars – charging a fee of about $15,000 per child.

Citing ongoing litigation, the Hardings declined to speak with CBS News at their offices in Charleston, South Carolina.

One such case, filed last month, includes charges of “wrongful adoption,” “fraud” and “intentional misrepresentation.”

“How do you respond to charges that CWA knowingly deceived or misled adoptive parents through the adoption process in Ethopia?” Keteyian asked.

“Those allegations are completely unfounded,” said Curtis Bostic, attorney for CWA. He told CBS News he was prohibited by law from discussing specific adoption cases.

“I’m talking to parents who are really upset,” Keteyian said. “Who are devastated with their dealings with CWA.”

“Sometimes, people are upset when they just simply misunderstand things,” Bostic said. “I believe that’s exactly what you’re hearing. There have been thousands and thousands of adoptions conducted by CWA all over the world. Is there going to be a handful of folks who misunderstand, who – or who aren’t happy with their adoption? There’s going to be, and we regret that.”

The Bradshaw family lives with its own set of regrets. Parents who trusted and believed they were doing the right thing. The three young girls are learning to adopt a life far from the country they still call home.

Source: CBS News

Ethiopian Commen DNA :- Haplogroup

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Haplogroup

In the study of molecular evolution, a haplogroup (from the Greek: ἁπλοῦς, haploûs, “onefold, single, simple”) is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor.

DNA Haplgoups are an indication of “Deep Ancestry”. That is an attempt to identify the very early ancestral group from which one is descended 12,000 to 70,000 years ago. This can give one an indication of where his/her ancestors originated.

In human genetics, the haplogroups most commonly studied are Y-chromosome (Y-DNA) haplogroups and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, both of which can be used to define genetic populations. Y-DNA is passed solely along the patrilineal line, from father to son, while mtDNA is passed down the matrilineal line, from mother to daughter. Neither recombines, and thus Y-DNA and mtDNA change only by chance mutation at each generation with no intermixture between parents’ genetic material.

J1 (M267) Typical of populations of the Arabian peninsula, Dagestan, Mesopotamia, the Levant and Semitic-speaking populations of North Africa and Northeast Africa, with a moderate distribution throughout Western Asia. They are the people originated from Ethiopia.

J1*

J1a (M62)

J1b (M365)

J1c (M390) – formerly J1e

J1d (P56)

J1e (P58)

J1e1 (M367, M368) – formerly J1c

J1e2 (M369) – formerly J1d