Archives for;

Fasika

Volcano erupted in Eritrea as expected breaking the Ethiopian Ocean, the mega dams are menaced

 

 

The volcano of the Horn of Africa are set in motion by exploding in Eritrea  for the  making of  the most expected Ethiopian ocean. It set in action as we have foretold in this site in previous articles. Many geophysicist and seismologist  thought  it will take millions of years to split the horn of Africa. But we have explained in serious of articles that it is in the end of  the  millions of  years phase,  and even in our time we will see the opening of the new ocean.

It is very simple to give  a reality description of events but the true prediction we have been making will save thousands of live if the government of the region  start evacuating the population and stop damming the region.

In the evening of June 12 2011, a series of earthquakes struck the Afambo, Eritrea area. The earthquakes were followed by 2 strong 5.7 earthquakes.  This pattern will continue till the final breaking  of the Horn  from the rest of the continent of Africa.

 

 

 

 

UPDATE 21:36 UTC : Some more information on the volcanic complex :
Mallahle is the central of three NE-SW-trending stratovolcanoes in the Danakil horst SW of Dubbi volcano, and lies SSW of Nabro volcano.
These two volcanoes, along with Bara Ale and Sork’Ale, form the Bidu volcanic complex. The complex Mallahle stratovolcano is truncated by a steep-walled 6-km-wide caldera. Mallahle is formed of rhyolitic lava flows and pyroclastics. Basaltic lava flows blanket the slopes of the
volcano. Recent obsidian flows are found on the NW flank of Mallahle and older obsidian flows were erupted on the northern caldera floor.
Flank spatter and scoria cones are most numerous on the western side of the volcano. Extensive ignimbrite deposits associated with the collapse of Mallahle and Nabro volcanoes blanket the countryside.

UPDATE 21:28 UTC : These magnitudes can lead to serious damage if the epicenter is below or very near to Afambo (which is very nearby based on the seismological data) . We do not think that there will be injured people as the series started with moderate earthquakes and as people will stay on the streets after so many earthquakes.  The current situation tends to become very dangerous.

UPDATE 21:23 UTC : A Mw5.7 has been also recorded at depth 9km in around the same area. No record of damage has yet been recorded.

UPDATE 21:03 UTC : Lucas Tavares reports in our Facebook page : I was studying about this volcanoes past hours. Maybe the shakes surrounds the Mallahle or Nabro Caldera, there is’nt any known eruptions of these volcanoes! Shakes are becoming stronger!

UPDATE 20:58 UTC : We have still no trace (as expected) of what is really going on. This last 5.4 earthquake can be damaging at this shallow depth when the epicenter is located below a village or town. As we are unsure of the exact epicenter (the error margin may be 10 to 30 km different than reported by the USGS).

UPDATE 20:56 UTC : The earthquakes are continuing with the last one as the strongest so far with a magnitude of 5.4 at a depth of 10 km.

UPDATE 20:33 UTC : We are more and more convinced that one of the nearby volcanoes went into an active status as the distance to the ridge fault is to big to create this kind of earthquakes. Additionally almost all the earthquakes are occurring near the volcano complex on the picture (courtesy Google Earth)

UPDATE 19:37 UTC : This unusual series of moderate earthquakes have also occurred a couple of months ago in the Gulf of Aden. The earthquakes are typical for separating irregular tectonic plates. The series in the Gulf of Adenhad their epicenter in the immediate area of the ridge fault.
Due to the close-by volcanoes, an eruption pattern of the Dubbi volcano is still possible.  The pre-eruption pattern of both the Icelandic and Chilean volcanoes from the last few weeks is also present here. Compared to Iceland and Chile, Eritrea has other concerns than looking to beautiful eruptions. We will follow up these events and will come back to you as soon as we can get more data ?
UPDATE 16:11 UTC : Other agencies are reporting totally different and less dangerous numbers : GFZ: 4.9 @ 43 km and EMSC 4.7 @ 200 km
Moderate shallow earthquake with an epicenter almost below Afambo.
Approx. 15 km from the Dubbi volcano. The peak of the Dubbi volcano is 1625 m. There have been four known eruptions. In 1400 lava was determined to have reached the Red Sea while in 1861 ash was thrown over 250 km from the volcano. Two further events were suspected between 1861 and the 20th century.

During the late afternoon and evening of June 12 2011 a series of moderate earthquake struck at first near Afambo in Eritrea and later 100 km more to the south in Ethiopia. At the moment of writing, we do not know whether these earthquake have a tectonic or a volcanic origin.

Other moderate earthquakes which occurred after the first earthquake which is described in detail

M 4.5      2011/06/12 21:37     Depth 15.0 km      ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
M 5.7      2011/06/12 21:03     Depth 9.9 km      ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
M 5.7      2011/06/12 20:32     Depth 10.1 km      ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
M 4.8      2011/06/12 19:44     Depth 9.9 km      ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
M 4.7      2011/06/12 19:37     Depth 10.1 km      ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
M 4.5      2011/06/12 18:01     Depth 10.1 km      ETHIOPIA
M 5.0      2011/06/12 19:21     Depth 10.0 km     ETHIOPIA
M 4.7      2011/06/12 17:47:21       13.538       41.588     Depth 10.0 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
M 4.8      2011/06/12 17:18:10       13.381       41.764     Depth 9.9 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
M 4.3      2011/06/12 16:33:12       13.507       41.722     Depth 10.0 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
M 4.8      2011/06/12 16:24:44       13.436       41.682     Depth 10.0 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
M 4.7      2011/06/12 16:12:03       13.397       41.734     Depth 10.0 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
M 4.5      2011/06/12 16:09:30       13.443       41.696     Depth 2.9 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION

Most important Earthquake Data:
Magnitude : 5.1
UTC Time : Sunday, June 12, 2011 at 15:37:05 UTC
Local time at epicenter : Sunday, June 12, 2011 at 06:37:05 PM at epicenter
Depth (Hypocenter) : 10 km
Geo-location(s) :
Almost below Afambo, Eritrea
128 km (79 miles) WNW of Assab, Eritrea

Source:

http://earthquake-report.com/2011/06/12/unusual-series-of-moderate-…

 

Name Elevation Location Last eruption
meters feet Coordinates
Alid 910 2966 14.88°N 39.92°E Holocene
Asseb 910 2986 12.85°N 42.43°E Holocene
Dubbi 987 5331 13.58°N 41.808°E 1861
Gufa 600 1969 12.55°N 42.53°E Holocene
Jalua 713 2339 15.042°N 39.62°E unknown
Mousa Ali 2028 6654 12.47°N 42.40°E Holocene
Nabro 2218 7277 13.37°N 41.70°E June 13, 2

 

Eruption

Satellite images showed a large eruption occurring shortly after 2200 UTC June 12, close to 1 AM East Africa Time, in the Southern Red Sea Region. The eruption created a large ash cloud near the Eritrea-Ethiopia border region, eventually extending over 1,000 km (620 mi) into neighboring Sudan.[6]

Forecasters predicted that the ash plume may reach Israel.[7]

Geology

The erupting volcano is located within the Afar Triangle, in the larger Danakil Depression that holds many other active volcanoes. However, neither volcano thought potentially responsible for the eruption has seen activity in the past century, with Dubbi last erupting in 1861 and Nabro remaining quiet for thousands of years. No eruption of Nabro occurred in recorded history.

Earthquakes

A series of earthquakes[8], including two at magnitude 5.7[9][10] struck the region in the hours preceeding the eruption. The tremors may be volcanic in origin.[11]

References

  1. ^ News, BNO (June 13, 2011). “VAAC: Eruption underway at Dubbi volcano in Eritrea”. Channel 6 news. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  2. ^ News, BNO (June 13, 2011). “UPDATE 1 — Volcanic eruption in Eritrea sends plume into the air, …. WireUpdate. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  3. ^ VAAC, Toulouse. “Toulouse VAAC – Volcanic Ash Advisories”. Meteo France. Toulouse Volcano Ash Advisory Centre. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  4. ^ Vervaeck, Armand (June 13, 2011). “Eritrea volcano eruption : Ash cloud advisory extending further into Africa”. Earthquake – Report. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  5. ^ Gubin, Anastasia (June 13, 2011). “Africa: Volcán Nabro erupciona lanzando cenizas hasta Sudán” (in Spanish). The Epoch Times. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  6. ^ Duran, Jim; Warren Miller (June 13, 2011). “Dubbi volcanic ash cloud expands westward through Northern Africa”. The Weather Space. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  7. ^ Masa, Israel. “ענן וולקני מהר געש באריתריאה מתקדם לעבר ישראל” (in Hebrew). Masa.co.il. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  8. ^ A, Solomon (June 13, 2011). “Series of moderate earthquakes hit Eritrea – Ethiopia border region”. Ethiopian Journal. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  9. ^ Earthquake, USGS. “Magnitude 5.7 – ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION”. United States Geological Survey. Earthquake Hazards Program. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  10. ^ Earthquake, USGS. “Magnitude 5.7 – ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION”. United States Geological Survey. Earthquake Hazards Program. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  11. ^ Stuff, NZ (June 13, 2011). “Quake swarm hits Ethiopia-Eritrea”. Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 13 June 2011.

 

Ethiopianism is Pan Africanism by ANC

ANC and  Ethiopianism

Time to reflect on our gains and challenges

May 26, 2010 Edition 1

mathole motshekga

This year’s Africa Day celebration in Parliament was themed “Building and Maintaining Peace through Sport in Africa”.

Parliament must be commended for hosting the important event, which took place just a few days before the kick-off of the biggest sporting event on the planet – the World Cup.

Football has for ages served as a uniting sport for people of all races throughout the world.

It has brought hope during extreme difficulty; unity where there was division; courage in the face of systematic injustice; faith in what looked impossible; and victory over subjugation.

Given the continent’s history of conflict and instability, the World Cup must foster peace in Africa, and should be used to usher in a new era of unity and stability in the continent.

We are confident that this prestigious world event will not only leave a lasting legacy for South Africans, but for the continent as a whole. It is for this reason that we have called this event an “African World Cup”.

This year’s marking of this important day on the calendar of the African continent takes place two years after violent attacks targeted mainly at foreign nationals in communities in Gauteng and other parts of the country.

While those attacks were generally xenophobic in nature, they also bore some ethnic undertones as they were also targeted at South Africans.

The ANC and government moved swiftly to decisively quell the attacks and ensured that those behind the attacks were isolated by society and arrested.

As we celebrate this important day, we must as a nation and continent continue to consolidate our social stability and reaffirm our efforts to build a human rights culture. We must, through words and deeds, shun such ugly and repulsive acts both within our borders and elsewhere on the continent.

On Africa Day we must reaffirm our solidarity with the rest of the continent.

We will continue to empower our people to become their own liberators from poverty and underdevelopment.

The establishment of the AU and the adoption of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (Nepad) were confirmation that Africa was focusing on developmental issues to create a better life for all.

While Africa continues to record successes on many fronts, we are also mindful of the many challenges still faced by the continent.

Extreme poverty characterised by the lack of access to basic education, health care and adequate nutrition remain some of the main challenges facing the continent.

The spread of diseases, especially HIV/Aids, continues to threaten Africa’s efforts to attain peace, stability and prosperity.

Parliament must use the Africa Day celebration to acknowledge the continent’s achievements and to take stock of challenges it still faces.

It is important to use that opportunity to reflect on the roots of the renascent ideology and its future.

We must use the celebration to recall that the founders of African nations were spiritual and religious people, guided by the desire to create non-racial, non-sexual, united and democratic and prosperous societies in which the value of all citizens was measured by their shared humanity.

Africa is a great continent that gave birth to human civilisation. It gave birth to sciences and philosophy which shaped modern sciences and society.

More specifically, Africa gave birth to humanity itself – sciences such as geometry, astronomy, astrology and mathematics.

Africa also gave birth to spiritual philosophy of humanism (Ubuntu/Botho) which gave the modern world a universal value system that took root during the European Renaissance, which was inspired by the recovery of Khemeti.

It is therefore not surprising that the founders of modern African nations appealed to the glory of ancient Ethiopia and Africa to propagate their (notion of) equality of Africans to other races.

The African Renaissance is an ideal that came from the people and must be rooted among the people to succeed.

To understand it we must remember that Africa was ravaged by the slave trade and colonialism.

These two inhumane systems virtually killed Africa.

For us to understand and nurture the renascent movement we need to understand its underlying ideas and motives.

African people were not only uprooted from their continent and enslaved abroad, they were denied their humanity and treated as second-class citizens in state and church, including cultural institutions.

Africans remember their disposition to associate with one another for mutual benefit. In the Americas, three types of organisations were established as a result of this disposition.

These organisations were the Prince Hall or African Masonic Lodges, and Ethiopianism that included Sylvester Henry Williams, founder of Pan Africanism, Booker T Washington founder of the Tuksgee Institute and mentor of John Langalibalele Dube – the founding president of the ANC.

The others were WEB du Bois and Marcus Garvey as well Richard Allen, founder of the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church.

The father of African Ethiopian Theology, Reverend Mangena Mokone, founded the Ethiopian Church of South Africa, which became the 14th district of the AME.

The AME was established in 1892.

In the same year Dube foretold the rebirth of Africa in his public lecture entitled Upon my Native Land.

In that lecture he foretold a rebirth of a spiritual, humane and prosperous South Africa.

The affiliation of the Ethiopian Church to the AME was concluded in 1896. From that year onwards many African students were offered bursaries to study in African/American colleges, where they were profoundly influenced by Masonic teachings of Prince Hall, Ethiopianism and Pan Africanism.

In 1898 Bishop Turner of the AME Church came to South Africa and ordained many priests in the Ethiopian Church.

The Pan African Movement took shape in 1900 when Williams convened the First Pan African Conference at which Du Bois delivered a keynote address. In that address Du Bois foretold that the colour line would be the greatest problem of the 20th century. The conference also condemned the atrocities perpetrated on African people during the Anglo-Boer war.

After the conference some delegates, including Williams, came to the Cape where they joined Bishop Copplin of the AME Church and other AME officials who propagated both Ethiopianism and Masonic teachings.

Ironically, the Pan Africanists used Masonic teachings and Ethiopian theology to promote universal brotherhood and sisterhood while Cecil John Rhodes and his followers used Masonic teachings to justify the suppression and exploitation of African and other races.

It was this racially discriminatory ideology that inspired the Boers and Britons to conclude the Treaty of Vereeniging which reconciled Boers and Britons on the basis of social exclusion of African people.

  • Mathole Motshekga, Chief Whip of the ANC, speaking at the Africa Day celebration in Parliament yesterday.
  • Pesah Fasika Easter Pâque

    We  wish happy Pesah Fasika Easter Pâque

    yellow-candles

    ——————————-


    ———————————

    The 2010 Easter Date applies to the western calendar (Catholic and Protestant Churches), and also to the The Eastern Orthodox church. This is an unusual event since the two branches of Christianity have different methods for calculating the correct date for Easter. There are only a few years each century when the Easter dates match like this so Easter 2010 is seen as extra special.

    The Ethiopian Easter  is more Jewish than christian in its practices. The lamp is scrified for over 60% of the house hold in Ethiopia this is done with the same ritual to that of the ancient Hebrews. However in the rest of the Christian world the sacrificed has ceased since Jesus  gave his life as  the Lamb of the Lord on the Cross.

    The first four of the seven feasts occur during the springtime (Passover, Unleavened Bread, First Fruits, and Weeks) . The final three holidays (Trumpets, The Day of Atonement, and Tabernacles) occur during the fall, all within a short fifteen-day period.

    (Leviticus 23:5) (1 Corinthians 5:7)

    GIF Animation  of a Menorah

    The Passover and Unleavened Bread

    4 “ ‘These are the Lord’s appointed feasts, the sacred assemblies you are to proclaim at their appointed times:  5The Lord’s Passover begins at twilight on the fourteenth day of the first month.  6 On the fifteenth day of that month the Lord’s Feast of Unleavened Bread begins; for seven days you must eat bread made without yeast.  7 On the first day hold a sacred assembly and do no regular work.  8 For seven days present an offering made to the Lord by fire. And on the seventh day hold a sacred assembly and do no regular work.’ ”

    Firstfruits

    9 The Lord said to Moses,  10 “Speak to the Israelites and say to them: ‘When you enter the land I am going to give you and you reap its harvest, bring to the priest a sheaf of the first grain you harvest.  11 He is to wave the sheaf before the Lord so it will be accepted on your behalf; the priest is to wave it on the day after the Sabbath.  12 On the day you wave the sheaf, you must sacrifice as a burnt offering to the Lord a lamb a year old without defect,  13 together with its grain offering of two-tenths of an ephaha of fine flour mixed with oil—an offering made to the Lord by fire, a pleasing aroma—and its drink offering of a quarter of a hinb of wine.  14 You must not eat any bread, or roasted or new grain, until the very day you bring this offering to your God. This is to be a lasting ordinance for the generations to come, wherever you live.

    Feast of  Hebrew Weeks

    Jesus Fulfilled the Jewish FeastsPassover seder plate with charoset, parsley, roasted bone, roasted egg and bitter herbs (maror)

    Why does the Easter date move every year?

    in the year 325AD, the Roman Emperor Constantine got the early Christian leaders together at Nicea to fix matters of doctrine and dates of important Christian events such as Easter. They chose the first Sunday after the full moon following the vernal equinox; (as opposed to Christmas day which they fixed as 25th December).

    httpvdh://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yPid9BLQQcg

    Judeo-Christian origins of Easter:

    A very common theme present in many ancient Pagan religions described the life of a man-god — a savior of humanity — his execution, his visit to the underworld, his resurrection after two or three days, and his ascension to heaven. The life of Yeshua of Nazareth (a.k.a. Jesus Christ) as recorded in the Gospels includes the Christian version of this theme. Good Friday is observed in remembrance of Jesus’ execution by the occupying Roman army, and his burial in a cave-tomb. Easter Sunday is the date when a group of his female followers first noticed the empty tomb, and concluded that he had either been resurrected, or his body had been stolen.

    The timing of the Christian celebration of Easter is linked to the Jewish celebration of the Passover. Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread were observed by the ancient Israelites early in each new year. (The Jewish people followed the Persian/Babylonian calendar and started each year with the Spring Equinox circa MAR-21). “Equinox” means “equal night;” on that date of the year, the night and day are approximately equal. The name “Passover” was derived from the actions of the angel of death as described in the book of Exodus. The angel “passed over” the homes of the Jews which were marked with the blood obtained from a ritual animal sacrifice. The same angel exterminated the first born(s) of every family whose doorway was not so marked – one of the greatest acts of mass-murder mentioned in the Bible. Victimized were first-born sons as well as the first-born of domesticated animals.

    Passover was the most important feast of the Jewish calendar, celebrated at the first full moon after the Vernal Equinox. (The Equinox typically occurs on March 20, 21 or 22 according to our present calendar.)  The Gospels differ on the date of Jesus’ execution:

    The Synoptic gospels (Mark, Matthew and Luke) state that Jesus’ last supper was a Seder – a Passover celebration at the start of 15th Nisan, just after sundown. (Jewish days begin at sundown and continue until the next sundown). Jesus was executed later that day and died about 3 PM.
    The gospel of John states that the last supper at the beginning of 14th Nisan. Jesus is recorded as having died on the afternoon of 14th Nisan.

    Most theologians reject John’s timing. They assume that John chose a false date for symbolic reasons. He made Jesus’ execution synchronize with the sacrifice of the Pascal lamb in the Temple at Jerusalem. If Jesus was murdered on a Friday, then Passover would have fallen on a Thursday. This happened both in the years 30 and 33 CE.Passover (Pesach) Matzah and Kiddush Cup

    Many theologians accept an execution date of Friday, 30-APR-7 CE as correct. However, this date does produce some difficulties with the timing of Jesus’ ministry. Most theologians reject the inference in the Gospel of John that Jesus taught over an interval in excess of two years and less than four years. An early crucifixion date is compatible with a one-year ministry, as implied in the Synoptic gospels where only a single Passover is mentioned. Some authorities prefer the date of 33-APR-3 CE. However, this late timing causes problems in other ways. It does not seem to allow sufficient time for Saul’s persecutions of Christians, Paul’s conversion, his three-year absence from Palestine, and his early evangelism before the Jerusalem Council was held. In 1733, the great British scientist, Sir Isaac Newton, computed two likely dates: 33-APR-7 and 34-APR-23. He preferred the latter. The AD 34 choice has few supporters today; it conflicts with the date of Paul’s conversion. Also, it requires that five Passovers had occurred during Jesus’ ministry and depends on a reference of the corn at Passover in Luke 6:1. These are not considered compelling. 1

    Most Christians believe that Jesus Christ was executed and buried just before the beginning of Passover on Friday evening. A minority believe that the execution occurred on a Wednesday or Thursday. Various dates other than the two above have been suggested:

    30-APR-5 CE, a Wednesday
    30-APR-6 CE, a Thursday
    31-APR-26 CE, a Thursday
    32-APR-10 CE, a Thursday

    Some liberal Christians have suggested that the actual date of Jesus’ execution is unknown, that it might have happened at any time during the year, and that the early Christian church arbitrarily selected Passover as the time. This allowed them to link the most important religious days in Judaism and Christianity. It also allowed the human sacrifice of Jesus (“Christ our paschal lamb” in 1 Corinthians 5:7) to be linked to the sacrifice of the Pascal lamb in the Jewish Temple.

    Other theologians have suggested that Yeshua of Nazareth never existed, or that he lived centuries earlier, or that he was never crucified. Over one billion Muslims in the world believe that he was not executed by the Roman Army.

    Passover, otherwise known as the spring festival, celebrates the exodus of the Jewish people from captivity and slavery by the Egyptians. According to Jewish law, Passover begins on 15 Nisan, lasting for seven days in Israel and eight for Jews living in the Diaspora.The literal translation for Passover or Pesach in Hebrew derives from when God when slewing the first-born (Exodus 12: 23) as the last of the eight curses imposed upon the Egyptians to passed over the houses of the children of Israel. In modern times, within the Diaspora, the festival came to be known as Passover, although many Jews refer to the festival as the Hag Ha-Matzot, meaning ‘the Festival of Unleavened Bread’.

    The Hebrews Peshah

    This is what typifies Passover for most Jews, the fact that eating leavened bread (hametz) is forbidden, and eating only unleavened bread (matzah) is allowed during the entire duration of the festival. (Exodus 23: 15; Leviticus 23: 6; Deuteronomy 16: 16).

    As part of Halakhich law, on the night before Passover begins (14 Nisan), every Jewish home must be thoroughly searched and any hametz removed from the house. Many observant Jews observe the tradition of carrying out a last minute token search for hametz using a candle and feather to brush away any last crumbs that may have been overlooked. A prayer is then offered declaring any hametz that may have been overlooked be rendered void.

    In modern Israel, it has become common practice for a non-Jewish person to make a ritual purchase of all hametz stored in the country’s warehouses, as Israel imports all her wheat. At the end of the festival, the hametz is sold back to the country, at a token profit.

    httpvhd://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8oG7AQWY9cI

    Preparing of matzah must be carried out under the rules of kashrut and under the strictest of supervision. In Israel, there are many specialist bakeries that produce only Matzot, as they keep all year round. Special care is required to be taken, whilst the dough is being kneaded and whilst it is being baked. The supervisory ritual, known as shemirah is to prevent the dough from fermenting so that it doesn’t rise. As is the case with many other aspects of Judaism, there are arguments as to what stage the shemirah should begin.

    The fact is that many find eating matzah hard to bear and desist from eating bread altogether for the duration of Passover, apart from a single piece that is obliged to be eaten during the Li’l Haseder (Seder night) ritual which takes place on the first night of Passover. Jewish people in the Diaspora hold two Seders, on the first and second nights of Passover.

    Passover is one of the most enjoyable, family orientated festivals in the Jewish religion and celebrating Seder together with families and friends is the highlight of their religious year.

    Seder in Hebrew means order, and when used to describe the service and festive meal held on the first (and second) nights of Passover, maintaining the order or sequence of events holds great significance. A special prayer book known as the Haggadah acts as a program for the evening, laying out in considerable detail the order of the event as they are supposed to happen.

    A literal translation for the word Haggadah is “telling” ‘, and indeed, the Haggadah tells the story of the Jews coming out of Egypt and their need to pass on the story of their Exodus into the desert and their subsequent freedom for generations to come.

    Interestingly, despite the fact that the Talmud mentions the story of the Exodus, no formal Haggadah was printed for thousands of years. Today the Haggadah exists in around 2,000 formats containing not only specific instructions on how the Seder table be laid out as well as how the service be conducted.

    Most importantly, the Seder table should be bedecked with a white tablecloth, on which should be placed the various artifacts that are the focal points of the service. First of all, a set of candlesticks with lit candles lit should be placed on the table, beside the Seder plate. The Seder plate is where all the foods that need to be eaten during the service should be placed, each with their own special significance. These are:

    • Matzot: Unleavened bread, three in number, representing that when the Jews went out of Egypt, they had no time to wait for their bread dough to rise. The Matzot are placed on a special plate and covered with a specially embroidered Matzah cover.
    • Maror: These are bitter herbs, representing the bitter and tough lives of the Hebrew slaves.
    • Charoset: This is a paste made from apples, almonds and wine, to remind Jews of the mortar used to build the Pyramids with a sweet taste to represent the sweetness of freedom.
    • Salt Water: This represents the tears of the oppressed Hebrews.
    • Parsley: To dip in the salt water.
    • A Roasted Bone: This is to represent the Paschal lamb that was slaughtered during the days of the Temple when Passover was first celebrated.
    • A Roasted Egg: This represents a reminder of the festival offering

    Once the father of the Seder has inspected the table and made sure that all is in order, then the Seder can begin.

    First of all Kiddush (benediction) over the first cup of wine is taken. Anyone at the table, who has passed the age of bar mitzvah, is allowed to drink wine at the Seder table.

    The next stage is to break the middle slice of Matzah into two parts, with one half being set aside as the afikoman (dessert). The parsley on the Seder plate is then dipped into the bowl of salt water and passed around by the “Ab Haseder” (father of the Seder) to be eaten.

    httpvhd://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YWNb9nskCog

    The next stage is when the youngest person at the table (who has been Bar mitzvah) is allowed to ask the “Four Questions” Usually this segment of the service is treated very lightly, with the person who has been given the task of asking these questions suffering from stage fright and being egged on by the rest of the family and friends around the table. The questions basically ask” why is tonight different from all other nights” and pertain to the sudden change in circumstances of Jewish people during their Exodus from Egypt. The four questions are answered by the guests in a light hearted and frivolous manner but in strict accordance with what is written in the Haggadah.

    httpvhd://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O9UmYO0EtfU

    httpvhd://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cFhWkJQ_L5I

    httpvhd://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sa69tpr6Te4

    httpvhd://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4QT5W7Ipucg