The volcano of the Horn of Africa are set in motion by exploding in Eritrea for the making of the most expected Ethiopian ocean. It set in action as we have foretold in this site in previous articles. Many geophysicist and seismologist thought it will take millions of years to split the horn of Africa. But we have explained in serious of articles that it is in the end of the millions of years phase, and even in our time we will see the opening of the new ocean.
It is very simple to give a reality description of events but the true prediction we have been making will save thousands of live if the government of the region start evacuating the population and stop damming the region.
In the evening of June 12 2011, a series of earthquakes struck the Afambo, Eritrea area. The earthquakes were followed by 2 strong 5.7 earthquakes. This pattern will continue till the final breaking of the Horn from the rest of the continent of Africa.
UPDATE 21:36 UTC : Some more information on the volcanic complex : Mallahle is the central of three NE-SW-trending stratovolcanoes in the Danakil horst SW of Dubbi volcano, and lies SSW of Nabro volcano. These two volcanoes, along with Bara Ale and Sork’Ale, form the Bidu volcanic complex. The complex Mallahle stratovolcano is truncated by a steep-walled 6-km-wide caldera. Mallahle is formed of rhyolitic lava flows and pyroclastics. Basaltic lava flows blanket the slopes of the volcano. Recent obsidian flows are found on the NW flank of Mallahle and older obsidian flows were erupted on the northern caldera floor. Flank spatter and scoria cones are most numerous on the western side of the volcano. Extensive ignimbrite deposits associated with the collapse of Mallahle and Nabro volcanoes blanket the countryside.
UPDATE 21:28 UTC : These magnitudes can lead to serious damage if the epicenter is below or very near to Afambo (which is very nearby based on the seismological data) . We do not think that there will be injured people as the series started with moderate earthquakes and as people will stay on the streets after so many earthquakes. The current situation tends to become very dangerous.
UPDATE 21:23 UTC : A Mw5.7 has been also recorded at depth 9km in around the same area. No record of damage has yet been recorded.
UPDATE 21:03 UTC : Lucas Tavares reports in our Facebook page : I was studying about this volcanoes past hours. Maybe the shakes surrounds the Mallahle or Nabro Caldera, there is’nt any known eruptions of these volcanoes! Shakes are becoming stronger!
UPDATE 20:58 UTC : We have still no trace (as expected) of what is really going on. This last 5.4 earthquake can be damaging at this shallow depth when the epicenter is located below a village or town. As we are unsure of the exact epicenter (the error margin may be 10 to 30 km different than reported by the USGS).
UPDATE 20:56 UTC : The earthquakes are continuing with the last one as the strongest so far with a magnitude of 5.4 at a depth of 10 km.
UPDATE 20:33 UTC : We are more and more convinced that one of the nearby volcanoes went into an active status as the distance to the ridge fault is to big to create this kind of earthquakes. Additionally almost all the earthquakes are occurring near the volcano complex on the picture (courtesy Google Earth)
UPDATE 19:37 UTC : This unusual series of moderate earthquakes have also occurred a couple of months ago in the Gulf of Aden. The earthquakes are typical for separating irregular tectonic plates. The series in the Gulf of Adenhad their epicenter in the immediate area of the ridge fault. Due to the close-by volcanoes, an eruption pattern of the Dubbi volcano is still possible. The pre-eruption pattern of both the Icelandic and Chilean volcanoes from the last few weeks is also present here. Compared to Iceland and Chile, Eritrea has other concerns than looking to beautiful eruptions. We will follow up these events and will come back to you as soon as we can get more data ? UPDATE 16:11 UTC : Other agencies are reporting totally different and less dangerous numbers : GFZ: 4.9 @ 43 km and EMSC 4.7 @ 200 km Moderate shallow earthquake with an epicenter almost below Afambo. Approx. 15 km from the Dubbi volcano. The peak of the Dubbi volcano is 1625 m. There have been four known eruptions. In 1400 lava was determined to have reached the Red Sea while in 1861 ash was thrown over 250 km from the volcano. Two further events were suspected between 1861 and the 20th century.
During the late afternoon and evening of June 12 2011 a series of moderate earthquake struck at first near Afambo in Eritrea and later 100 km more to the south in Ethiopia. At the moment of writing, we do not know whether these earthquake have a tectonic or a volcanic origin.
Other moderate earthquakes which occurred after the first earthquake which is described in detail
M 4.5 2011/06/12 21:37 Depth 15.0 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION M 5.7 2011/06/12 21:03 Depth 9.9 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION M 5.7 2011/06/12 20:32 Depth 10.1 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION M 4.8 2011/06/12 19:44 Depth 9.9 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION M 4.7 2011/06/12 19:37 Depth 10.1 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION M 4.5 2011/06/12 18:01 Depth 10.1 km ETHIOPIA M 5.0 2011/06/12 19:21 Depth 10.0 km ETHIOPIA M 4.7 2011/06/12 17:47:21 13.538 41.588 Depth 10.0 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION M 4.8 2011/06/12 17:18:10 13.381 41.764 Depth 9.9 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION M 4.3 2011/06/12 16:33:12 13.507 41.722 Depth 10.0 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION M 4.8 2011/06/12 16:24:44 13.436 41.682 Depth 10.0 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION M 4.7 2011/06/12 16:12:03 13.397 41.734 Depth 10.0 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION M 4.5 2011/06/12 16:09:30 13.443 41.696 Depth 2.9 km ERITREA – ETHIOPIA REGION
Most important Earthquake Data: Magnitude : 5.1 UTC Time : Sunday, June 12, 2011 at 15:37:05 UTC Local time at epicenter : Sunday, June 12, 2011 at 06:37:05 PM at epicenter Depth (Hypocenter) : 10 km Geo-location(s) : Almost below Afambo, Eritrea 128 km (79 miles) WNW of Assab, Eritrea
Satellite images showed a large eruption occurring shortly after 2200 UTC June 12, close to 1 AM East Africa Time, in the Southern Red Sea Region. The eruption created a large ash cloud near the Eritrea-Ethiopia border region, eventually extending over 1,000 km (620 mi) into neighboring Sudan.
The erupting volcano is located within the Afar Triangle, in the larger Danakil Depression that holds many other active volcanoes. However, neither volcano thought potentially responsible for the eruption has seen activity in the past century, with Dubbi last erupting in 1861 and Nabro remaining quiet for thousands of years. No eruption of Nabro occurred in recorded history.
A series of earthquakes, including two at magnitude 5.7 struck the region in the hours preceeding the eruption. The tremors may be volcanic in origin.
^ News, BNO (June 13, 2011). “VAAC: Eruption underway at Dubbi volcano in Eritrea”. Channel 6 news. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
Jah Rastafari Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie I was believed to be divine by the majority Ethiopians living in his time as the Head of the Church and the state for over 47 years. After Menelik II modern Ethiopia is the making of Emperor Haile Selassie who came to power as early as 1929.
The majority the Ethiopians used to believe that the Negus was the Elect of God , The Lion of Judah, with his Power of Trinity will live forever, and having a divine power that he will never die. This was celebrated up unto 1974 passing through many trouble waters of wars, a coup in 60’s and several unsuccessful assassination attempts .
Today the Ethiopians have hard time to consolidate their conception with the Rastafarian movements who claim that Rasteferi is Jah God himself who walked and lived amongst Ethiopians for over 80 years, and did not die at the hands of the military junta in 1975 but transfigured like Enoch the predeluvian prophet who believed to be Ethiopian that walks with GOD.
The movement of the Rastafarians believing that King Haile Selassie is God himself is unimaginable especially for those who lived his regime and are remnants of Wolo famine and those in the different regions who suffered from his reign’s misfortune.
Today after 35 years he is highly venerated by the Rastafarians as the living God himself. Saturday 28 August marked the 35th anniversary his disappearance from world seen.
Many Ethiopians still claim that if Haile Selassie was God why he did not save his won people from destruction.
The Emperor’s successful prediction in his speech in League of the Nation the coming the WWII gave him more respect and honor as a great leader on his time in the world. He play great role the liberation of African and laying the foundation of African Unity in Addis Ababa, May 1963.
The Regime of the dictator Melese Zenawie “buried” the so called body of his imperial Haile Selassie the King of Kings of Ethiopia. This is done without any independent scientific DNA identification. This action is done at the ordered of foreign forces bearing triple significances:-
– The first is to come into terms with the messianic movements like the Rastafarian
– Secondly to show to the world that the crime of the Military regime is worse than the one they try to cover and wash their crimes in Ethiopia, and most of all
-Thirdly to consolidate their grip of power and in fear of the eventual revival of internal movement in the image of Jah people.
Many Ethiopians loves the Rastafarians not because they believe that Haile Selassie was is God rather seeing their adorations to what is Ethiopia and Ethiopian culture. For many Ethiopians of today prefer leaving their country than dying from famine drought and misery without any God saving them from harsh condition they are in the last 40 years.
The Second main reason that the Rastafarians are loved and respected in Ethiopia is their call for the unification of the whole continent at a time Ethiopia itself is menaced by dismemberment divided in Ethnical basis by the reigning dictatorial regime.
A DISHEVELLED man sits in a street cafe occasionally brushing back his thick dreadlocks which are half hidden beneath a floppy red, gold and green coloured beanie. As he gently nods in time with the pulsating reggae music blaring from the cheap, throbbing speakers, a speck of ash falls from a marijuana joint onto a T-shirt which bears the image of the legendary Bob Marley.
The world of Rastafarianism can certainly be a confusing one … part lifestyle choice, part bona fide religion, with few formal boundaries between the two. Not too long ago, Rastafarians were viewed with suspicion and distrust by many societies, yet they are now widely tolerated and occasionally even embraced by the mainstream. In fact, the scene I have just described might occur anywhere from Senegal to Brazil, Thailand to Sweden.
But just who is a real Rastafarian? And what does the future hold for this colourful, yet numerically small group of devotees?
The roots of rasta
Thirty-five years ago on Aug 28, 1975, the Ethiopian Marxist military junta known (by its Amharic acronym) as the DERG announced the death of the aged Emperor Haile Selassie I. Selassie, 82 at the time of his death, had been living under house arrest in his palace ever since a military coup had deposed him a year earlier (on Sept 12, 1974).
Jah Rastafari: The legendary Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie I was believed by his followers to be divine. Last Saturday marked the 35th anniversary of his death.
Although he was old and infirm, his death was shrouded in mystery. However, that mystery pales in comparison to the effect that Selassie had on a group of his followers.
Hailing from a distinguished family (it is claimed that he was a direct descendent of the biblical King Solomon), he was born Tafari Makonnen in 1892. Soon after his birth, the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II scored a historic military victory when he decisively defeated the Italian army at the Battle of Adwa to preserve Ethiopia’s independence.
This defeat rankled so much with the Italians that under the Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, they were to attempt another invasion of Ethiopia 40 years later. This time, Ethiopia was led by Tafari Makonnen who adopted the title Ras Tafari upon becoming heir to the throne and Haile Selassie upon being crowned Emperor in 1930.
Providence Brown, a Trinidadian musician and one-time Rastafarian who still maintains his dreadlocks, takes up the tale. “As far as I know, Rastafarianism grew out of Haile Selassie’s defence of Ethiopia against Mussolini’s war-mongering. At that time, almost all of black Africa was under colonial rule by the white man, except Ethiopia. Even though Selassie was not able to prevent the invasion, many believed he was a special man. He travelled around Europe and America and gained much respect and many followers.”
Indeed in 1936, Selassie made an impassioned plea before the League of Nations (the forerunner of today’s United Nations) that marked him as a statesman of some note. Curiously it was at this point that his life story, coupled with his nation’s leading role in combating imperialism, led a small group of people to dub him a reincarnation of Jesus Christ.
While that may sound blasphemous to Christians, it should be remembered that Christ himself was viewed as a blasphemer by orthodox Jews who were waiting for their Messiah. As with many religions, Rastafarianism has its roots in a political conflict and some of the proponents of the new religion were keen to introduce the concept of a black Messiah.
A number of important books helped form the nascent religion and build a mythology around Selassie, who was seen to fulfil some of the vague prophesies of religious texts. The King James version of the Bible and the Kebra Negast (a sort of Ethiopian Orthodox bible) formed the base texts, while a number of books written and published in the first half of the last century (The Holy Piby, The Royal Parchment Scroll Of Black Supremacy and The Promised Key) added to the new religion. Twist and turn: It takes a lot of work to turn ‘normal’ straight hair into dreadlocks.
The thoughts of Jamaican black nationalist Marcus Garvey, who founded the black power Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in the 1920s, were also woven into the Rastafarian theology.
In the post-World War II scenario, in which Ethiopia regained its independence under Selassie’s rule, the first wave of Rastafarians from the United States and Jamaica began moving to communes in Ethiopia.
In 1948, Selassie himself donated 202ha of his private land in Shashamane, central Ethiopia, to enable members of the emerging Rastafarian movement to settle in his country. While he himself did not appear to believe that he was a reincarnation of Christ, records indicate that Selassie had a very warm relationship with his followers.
As time went by, a number of developments further defined the Rastafarian movement. It is believed that adherents of the Mau Mau uprising in Kenya grew “dreaded locks” when hiding in the hills during their vicious guerilla war against the British colonial authorities.
Soon followers of Rastafarianism began adopting this look, citing various passages of the Bible and Kebra Negast.
The consumption of marijuana to facilitate spiritual awareness also became tied up with the religion, although it could be argued that most mainstream religions use sensory deprivation and/or stimulation to heighten the spirituality of adherents. Many Rastafarians abstained from eating pork, and in some cases, meat altogether.
In 1966, the visit of Selassie to Jamaica became an extraordinary event. Feted by crowds of tens of thousands wherever he went, Selassie gained a whole new legion of followers. Crucially these were to include many Jamaican musicians, notably Bob Marley. These converts to Rastafarianism used the emerging reggae genre as a method of evangelising their new religion. Thanks to reggae’s remarkable success as a musical export, the Rastafarian religion and culture became known throughout the world.
Lifestyle or religion?
So widespread is reggae music and the dreadlock culture that one might be tempted to think the world is full of millions of hard-core Rastafarians.
Bernie and Ernie, the unforgettable Rastafarian jellyfish in Shark Tale.
However, just as every one who wears a Che Guevara T-shirt is not necessarily a card-carrying member of his local communist party, so the vast majority of dreadlocked reggae lovers are not formally Rastafarians.
Musician Brown describes his initial exposure to the religion in the 1970s: “I grew up in San Fernando in Trinidad. Rastafarians at the time could go to orthodox churches and there were also churches called the Twelve Tribes of Israel.”
As with many religions, Rastafarianism developed a number of sects, namely the Nyahbinghi Order, Bobo Ashanti and the Twelve Tribes of Israel.
“I think Rastafarianism had various phases. There was a lot more than just Selassie and his history. In the 1960s and 70s, there was a lot of identification with black power too, and many people gravitated towards the belief. But it was never very formal; I went to an orthodox church but considered myself a Rastafarian.”
At that time, despite the popularity of Marley and other reggae musicians, the authorities weren’t always fond of the religion’s adherents. “When Rastafarianism first became popular in the Caribbean, the government and the police didn’t like it. When I was a teenager, we would be harassed by the police. My generation helped put a stop to that,” recalls Brown.
“There were no strict rules. Some were vegetarians, some didn’t eat pork, others didn’t drink alcohol. There used to be these awesome parties/festivals that would go on for days. There would be great vegetarian food, people playing drums and chanting African songs constantly. It was just great, man!”
Eventually, however, Brown drifted away from the core religion, even though he still carries a lot of it with him. “Now I look at life differently. When I was younger, I took a lot of reef (marijuana) but I gave that up. There are so many other things to do in this life. The world is much bigger than sitting around being stoned. I am more into the power of the mind. I became a free-thinker over the years. Rastafarianism is not about the hair but the heart. If you are someone who challenges injustice and defends the rights of humans, animals, plants and the Earth itself, then you are all right in my book.”
Rastafarian Barbara Makeda Blake Hannnah authored the bookRastafari – The New Creation in 1981. In an updated commentary from 2002 entitled If Bob Marley Was Still Here, she lamented the commercialisation of what was once a militant and serious religion, and argues that the intended political impact of the movement has all but disappeared.
Interestingly enough, Nándor Tánczos, a Rastafarian from New Zealand, was an MP from 1999 to 2008, representing the Green Party. Tánczos, who maintains rasnandor.blogspot.com and nandor.net.nz, introduced a series of interesting proposals in the New Zealand parliament, including the Clean Slate Bill (to wipe minor convictions off a record if the offender hasn’t reoffended for seven years), and a failed attempt at marijuana law reform.
On his website, Tánczos says: “Being a Rasta is who I am, and it influences everything I do. It influences every moment of my life and my politics. Because politics is one expression of the philosophy that underpins, you know?”
Tánczos explains his reasons for venturing into formal politics: “I come from an anarchist background, politically. The idea of parliamentary politics was a total anathema to me for a long time. People ask me: ‘Isn’t parliament an elite power structure designed to maintain the status quo?’ Of course, that’s why we need to change it. I felt the Greens were able to articulate a different kind of vision of what politics was, and a different vision of the future of this country and what this world could be, and so I joined the Green Party.
“As a Rastafarian man, a constant fact of life is people trying to pigeonhole, stereotype, belittle and objectify me. This became especially true after stepping into Babylon (the Rastafarian term for an evil Empire!) and entering the New Zealand Parliament. But Rasta livity (way of life) is holistic and mindful of what is holy. It’s about not being ashamed to assert my own philosophy, while fully recognising and respecting everyone else’s as well.” Malaysian Rastas?
Reggae Joe is a local Malay lad who became so fascinated with reggae music that he grew his hair into dreads and formed the roots reggae band Pure Vibracion which released its debut album Peace And Lovelast year after many years of live gigging.
He explains: “My dreads symbolise the roots of the man and my spirituality. But when I first started to grow dreadlocks, I can say it was because of fashion, inspired by Max Cavalera singer from SoulFly, Jonathan Davis from Korn and Aru (of another local band Koffin Kanser).”
Growing dreads can be quite an undertaking, says Joe. “When I first started to dread my hair, I didn’t know much about it. The early period of about three to six months, you could go mental from the itchiness! It’s painful because your hair is tied up straight from your scalp. I had to sleep upside down or even on my front for almost three months! To make your new dreads stick together fast, it’s good to wash it with salt water cause it makes your hair sticky and it’s faster to tie the dreads together.”
“It’s not really cheap to maintain a good healthy dreadlock. Washing is easy, but keeping it dry is the hardest part. I only use two products for my dreads. One is tightening gel mixed with lime and aloe vera for making your dreads tighter, and I use a shampoo that is a mix of tea tree, rosemary and peppermint. They cost about RM80 each but there are a lot more products for dreads.”
Joe did feel a certain sense of alienation when he first decided to go dread. “I think you got to be strong mentally and patience is needed to carry a dreadlock upon your head. People look at you like an alien. They get scared of you, think that you are crazy cause they think you’ve not been washing your hair for many months or years. You feel left out.”
However, he says that this stigma has been lifted somewhat. “Now Malaysians are more understanding about dreads. After so many years of growing dreads, I can feel good positive vibes flowing inside me.”
Despite his interest in the culture, Joe is not particularly interested in the theology of Rastafarianism. “I see Rasta more as a way of life than a religion. Rastafarians believe in respect for all living creatures and hold self-respect in high regard. Spiritual freedom is also an important aspect. The movement is about belief in resistance of oppression, and pride in African heritage. (Well, I’m proud of the Malaysian heritage and culture.)
“They come from an environment of great poverty, depression, racism and class discrimination. They send a message of their people’s pride, freedom from oppression, a united world, peace, love, strong humanity spirit and positive vibes.”
Despite having been a member of Malaysian rasta cliques for a decade, Joe does not actually know any Malaysians who follow the Rastafarian religion strictly.
“The ones I know are not here in Malaysia. So I’m getting more knowledge about reggae, Rastafarians and dreadlock from these guys. I know many friends that only take Rastafarian as their way of life, just sending good words and vibes to each other.
As for the various pubs and stalls around KL that use the reggae/Rasta moniker, Joe has this to say: “Our band has played in some reggae bars in KL; the place looks reggae, but they play hip/hop and rock ‘n’ roll songs so that takes away from the ‘reggaeness’ of the place. There are also places like Babylon Bar in Langkawi which is run by fellow dreadlockers and they have lots of real reggae influences. It helps that it’s next to the beach and on the island! You can tell reggae is definitely growing here in Malaysia; some of them can feel the vibes.”
A future for Rasta?
Despite some claims that Rastafarians number around a million worldwide, there really does not seem to be that many. Even in Jamaica, the cradle of Rastafarianism, only around 20,000 people identified it as their religion in the last census (2001), while the number of Rastafarians in Ethiopia is believed to number only 200 or so (Selassie was deposed in 1974 when the new government confiscated all but 11ha of their commune).
There are small pockets and communities spread throughout the Caribbean as well as in Britain and the United States, but it is possible that the heydey of the Rastafarian religion has come and gone. What is certain, however, is that the music, cultural icons and simple messages of peace and love have made a permanent mark on our collective consciousness.