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Ethiopia, Ethiopian, Ethiopianist, Ethiopianity, Ethiopianism August 2012

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August 21   The day   the Ethiopian Dictator  officially Died

  • JPEG - 35 kbEthiopian leader Meles Zenawi dies – Africa – Al Jazeera English
  • The Ethiopian Eunuch as a Foreshadowing of the Coming Gentile Mission -Reverend William E. Flippin, Jr.: (Acts 8:36-49)
  • A death of a dictator : Part 1 (Amharic) – YouTube

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Tunisian Olympians Targeted by Islamist Radicals

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  • ThumbnailMeles Zenawi would be back Before 11 Sept, 2012? End and beginning of an era of new Social Time l – YouTube 

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August  01

 

Ethiopia 35 Eritrea 12 Athletes of Olympiad 2012 London

Ethiopia – Athletes

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Eritrea

Eritrea – Athletes

 

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Dates of London 2012 athletics finals with Ethiopian finalists anticipated:

Friday August 3rd:  9:25pm – Women’s 10,000m.
Saturday August 4th:  9:15pm – Men’s 10,000m.
Sunday August 5th:  11am – Women’s marathon; 9:25pm – Men’s 3000m steeplechase.
Monday August 6th:  9:05pm – Women’s 3000m steeplechase.
Tuesday August 7th:  9:15pm – Men’s 1500m.
Thursday August 9th:  8pm – Men’s 800m.
Friday August 10th:  8:05pm – Women’s 5,000m; 8:55pm – Women’s 1500m.
Saturday August 11th:  7:30pm – Men’s 5000m; 8pm – Women’s 800m.
Sunday August 12th:  11am – Men’s marathon. 

Ethiopian athletes entered in London 2012 athletics events 
(as previously announced, including, in italics, those reserves who will likely not travel to London):

400m
Men: Bereket Desta 

800m
Men: Mohammed Aman
Women: Fantu Magiso 

1500m
Men: Mekonnen Gebremedhin, Dawit Wolde, Teshome Dirirsa; Aman Wote (reserve)
Women: Abeba Aregawi, Genzebe Dibaba, Meskerem Assefa 

5000m
Men: Dejen Gebremeskel, Hagos Gebrhiwet, Yenew Alamirew; Kenenisa Bekele (reserve)
Women: Meseret Defar, Gelete Burka, Genet Yalew; Tirunesh Dibaba (reserve)

10,000m
Men: Kenenisa Bekele, Tariku Bekele, Gebregziabher Gebremariam;
Lelisa Desisa (reserve)
Women: Tirunesh Dibaba, Belaynesh Oljira, Werknesh Kidane; Aberu Kebede (reserve)

Marathon
Men: Ayele Abshero, Dino Sefer, Getu Feleke;
Tadesse Tola (reserve)
Women: Tiki Gelana, Aselefech Mergia, Mare Dibaba; Bezunesh Bekele (reserve)

3000m Steeplechase
Men: Roba Gari, Birhan Getahun, Nahom Mesfin
Women: Sofia Assefa, Hiwot Ayalew, Etenesh Diro; Zemzem Ahmed (reserve)

 

Ghost of Late Ethiopian Emperor Reflect on his 120 Birthday anniversary, as the Autocracies of Ethiopia and Eritrea Fall Apart

The Red Sea and Africa’s north-east move deeper  into an era of great change, with global ramifications as energy acquisition patterns also transform, impacting the relative geopolitical centrality of the region. 

Ethiopians gathered quietly, on July 23, 2012, in larger numbers than in recent years, and in more places around the world, as well as in Ethiopia, and remembered the birthday of the late Emperor, Haile Selassie I, born 120 years earlier.

The manner of their gatherings, and the growing and open remembrance of the “good times” of Ethiopian growth and prosperity in the Imperial period, were strategically significant. They reflected the reality that change has now begun in Ethiopia, and that there is less to fear from what had been the growing xenophobia of the Tigrean-born Prime Minister, Meles Zenawi, against potential rivals and against the Amhara people from whom the late Emperor had risen.

Has the Age of Meles Ended? 

The Emperor’s birthday anniversary — it was clear to those exchanging rumours in the Mercato in Addis Ababa that Meles Zenawi, 57, was either seriously ill, or perhaps even already dead. He had failed to participate in the African Union (AU) summit in Addis, and to meet a delegation from the People’s Republic of China (PRC), Ethiopia’s most important investor/trading partner.

Meles’ situation — regardless of how serious his health problems might be at present — mirrors the problems of leadership elsewhere in the region: in neighbouring Somaliland; in Yemen; and particularly in Eritrea, where Pres. Isayas Afewerke is almost certainly in failing health, if not already dead or incapacitated. The pattern of governmental “transitions” and power vacuums and difficulties in these states, as well as in Egypt, Sudan, and Somalia, has profound implications for the stability and security of the Red Sea/Suez sea lanes, and for the region generally. As we discuss in this report, the “unravelling” of the situations in Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Egypt, in particular, was picking up pace by mid-2012.

By July 18, 2012, even Agence France Presse (AFP) had picked up reports from “diplomatic sources” that Meles was in a “critical condition” in a Brussels hospital, although one source confirmed that he was, at least, still alive. Earlier in the week, Government spokesmen were saying that reports that Meles was being treated at a Brussels hospital were “false and wrong”. By July 20, 2012, the Government Communications Office said that Meles was in good health and would be back at his post in a few days, but confirmed that he “recently had a health problem that needed professional attention”.

The speculation — and it was only that — was that he was suffering from a brain tumor; no official would confirm the nature of his illness. By July 18, 2012, as well, Deputy Prime Minister, Hailemariam Desalegn confirmed at least that Meles was ill, explaining Meles’ absence from his scheduled chairmanship at a meeting in Addis of the New Partnership for African Development (DEPAD) on July 14, 2012, and his scheduled AU leaders’ summit on July 15, 2912.

The notably anti-Meles Ethiopian Review in early July 2012 commented: “Ethiopia’s khat-addicted dictator Meles Zenawi has been diagnosed with blood cancer and is receiving treatment at a Belgium hospital.”

His wife, Azeb Mesfin a member of Parliament and a key figure in the Tigré People’s Liberation Front: TPLF), visited Brussels for one day to see her husband in hospital. The former Foreign Minister (1991-2010) Seyoum Mesfin (currently Ethiopian Ambassador to the PRC, but still a key figure in the TPLF, which totally dominates the Government coalition, the Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front: EPRDF) also visited him, before returning to Addis Ababa. Seyoum is a strong contender to replace Meles.

There seems little doubt that Azeb Mesfin has been positioning herself to succeed her husband, although possibly not — initially — with the title of Prime Minister. Talk is that the Deputy Prime Minister, Hailemariam Desalegn, would take over, at least for an interim period. But there is little doubt that Azeb Mesfin (although with some Amhara family heritage of her own) shares her husband’s anti- Amhara policies, or at least uses this as a badge of legitimacy in the TPLF, which is also her only power base. Clearly, her only lever in the power stakes would be to attempt to continue the Tigrean (read TPLF) domination of the EPRDF and of Ethiopian life.

Here is where evidence is emerging of broad opposition to that, both within the EPRDF’s non-Tigrean membership, and from within the broader Ethiopian community, which has, until this point, been heavily constrained from voicing any opposition to Meles’ policies.

Meanwhile, Ethiopia’s Muslim community has been engaging in a growing fratricidal conflict, mainly between members of the moderate Ethiopian Islamic community and those converted by the large injections of Saudi funding to neo-salafist beliefs. These clashes grew to the point where riot police intervened in recent (July 2012) clashes in Addis Ababa just before and just after the AU summit in Addis. Foreign media reporting has indicated that these protests have been about the marginalization of the growing Muslim minority from governance. Deeper analysis how’s it is between the imported and domestic strands of Islam, and between neo-salafist and moderate strands, and the Meles Government has been supportive of the imported, moderate brand. Saudi Arabia has, for the past few decades funnelled billions of dollars worth of investment in Ethiopia, and also the source of funding for a massive campaign of mosque-building, to facilitate the proselytization of Saudi neo-salafist Wahhabism.

Ethiopian Muslims have protested against Government support for the Al Ahbash sect of Islam, which is ostensibly apolitical. Al Ahbash is also known as the Association of Islamic Charitable Projects, a Sufi movement, following the teachings of Ethiopian religious scholar Abdulla al-Harari. It is possible that the Government supported Al Ahbash to counterbalance the influence of imported Saudi Wahhabism.

But what is important is that the dissent by Ethiopian Muslims for or against imported strands of Islam, but in any event protesting against the Government, as well as the open support being shown for the memory of the late Emperor (and therefore, by definition, backing off from the hostility toward the Amhara ethnic group, and from the suppression of the Oromo peoples), are symptomatic of the reality that Meles and the TPLF have been unable to sustain the tightness of their grip on Ethiopia in recent months. Meles’ health condition — for some months a matter of speculation — may well have been at the root of the Administration’s declining ability to sustain its control.

There have been other, small, indicators, as well, such as the defection of the driver of Meles’ wife, Azeb Mesfin, who reportedly disappeared on about July 20, 2012, and apparently turned up in Rome. Why now? What spurred him to make the break? Was it the fact that he heard about the impending collapse of the Government, or the death or disability of Meles? And did Azeb prompt him to make the move?

Azeb Mesfin herself received an Italian visa on July 18, 2012, and was in Rome by July 19. It was reported on July 20, 2012, that Azeb had herself left Ethiopia to escape from Sebhat Nega, a key TPLF official whom she forced out of the party’s top leadership in 2009. She also had him removed from his chairmanship of the multi-billion-dollar Endowment Fund for the Rehabilitation of Tigré (EFFORT) around the same time. Sebhat Nega began manoeuvring from about the first week in July 2012 to make a comeback as the TPLF power. It was Sebhat who engineered Meles’ rise to power and he was the second most powerful figure in the ruling party until he was humiliated and removed by Azeb. Nonetheless, even though Sebhat has significant support within the TPLF, he is not seen as a successor to Meles, but he appears to have retained his influence and the loyalty of his supporters. And Sebhat has been known to oppose Meles’ own choice of a successor, Berhane Gebrekiristos.

This was perhaps one of the most significant pointers to the reality that Meles Zenawi was no longer in power, or likely to recover (assuming he was still alive). Indeed, it is also significant that his wife, Azeb, left Addis the day before Meles reportedly returned to the capital (on July 20, 2012).

Meanwhile, Berhane Gebrekiristos and Teodros Adhanom, another close confidante of Meles, were reportedly — by July 10, 2012 — named as acting Prime Ministers of Ethiopia.

Clearly, then, the Age of Meles in Ethiopia has ended, or was ending by early July 2012. More important now, is to calculate what this could mean to Ethiopia and the region.

What has been significant, during this “interregnum”, however, has been the reality that Eritrea quietly occupied the contested border area which includes the city of Badme. Ethiopia and Eritrea had, in fact, agreed to the ceding of this area in the Algiers Accord of 2002, but Meles had — even up to May 2012 — refused to allow the transfer of the town to Eritrea. There were valid reasons for this, but what was significant was that Eritrea — which has its own leadership problems at present — had not challenged Ethiopia on the matter until June-July 2012, when it seemed clear to Asmara that Meles’ grip on power had loosened.

The Strategic Impact 

Many factors on the regional and global stage have begun to coalesce. New and fundamental questions must now be raised about whether the geo-strategic importance of the core Middle East — the Arabian Peninsula and the seas to the north, east, and south of it — has also begun to be transformed.

The changing of the guard in Ethiopia is just one watershed event. Meles’ apparent incapacitation came at a time when Eritrea’s Isayas was also incapacitated (and, equally possibly, close to death), and at a time of political transitions in Egypt and Yemen, and internal preoccupation in Sudan (to the point of war with South Sudan). Indeed, it comes also at a time when the Saudi Arabian leadership itself is contemplating generational change.

At best, the end of the Meles and Isayas autocracies compounds the break of the status quo of the past few decades in the Red Sea/Suez sea lane of communication (SLOC), the broader Horn of Africa, and in Egypt itself. This has profound implications for East-West trade, which depends on the SLOC; transforming Egypt’s traditional hostility toward Ethiopia (which has utilized Eritrea as a staging horse to isolate Ethiopia, so as to minimize Ethiopian interference with the Blue Nile source waters); and opening up the prospects for Israel to once again more safely project naval power down the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean.

At the same time, however, the centrality to the global market of the oil and gas exports from the region (and particularly the Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf) has been declining. The question has to be asked as to whether the Red Sea/Suez SLOC is as strategically critical as it was, say, two decades ago? Certainly, in terms of ship movements and revenues to Egypt (Suez Canal), it may have risen in direct, statistical terms. But is it as critical in overall terms of strategic balance?

For the PRC and Japan, for example, while exports from the Persian Gulf remain critical, these can bypass the Red Sea/Suez SLOC, and, increasingly, the PRC is seeking overland oil and gas transfers from the Northern Tier (Iran and the Caspian Basin), rather than via sea lanes. To some degree, for Europe as well, pipelines are the dominant traffic lanes of the future, rather than sea lanes. On the other hand, oil and gas from the Horn of Africa itself — as well as from Yemen — is of growing importance, although oil from South Sudan is being postured to go via new pipelines through Kenya to the Indian Ocean, rather than allowing South Sudanese exports to continue to be subject to Sudanese control. [The original pipelines went from what is now South Sudan up to the Red Sea, through what is now Sudanese territory. The Kenyan route itself is not without problems, given the potential for instability and even secessionist activities taking place in Kenyan coastal regions.]

Japan itself, now highly conscious of the vulnerability of its oil and gas sea lanes through the Indian Ocean — as US influence declines (despite the US’ “Pacific pivot”), and because of increased PRC activities to control the chokepoints: the South China Sea sea-lanes, which link the Indian Ocean (and therefore the Red Sea) to the Pacific and on to Japan. As a result, Japan is seen as likely to increase its attempts to acquire Canadian oil and gas, largely from the Alberta fields, especially since the US Barack Obama Administration rejected (for the time being) plans for a pipeline from Alberta down through to the US markets. But the Canadians are also now more aware of, and ready to act on, the reality that an export market exists for their oil outside of the US. Significantly, as the global energy pattern changes, however, the US demand even for Canadian energy is seen as likely to decline.

Ultimately, an Alberta-Vancouver pipeline may make sound sense to Canada, to address the Asian markets, including Japan. And Japan might also find that it can find energy supplies from the US fields in Alaska, given the fact that the Alaska pipeline itself is under-utilized and facing real questions as to its viability if demand for Alaskan energy from “the lower 48” states declines further.

Such a move would instantly free Japan from the strategic uncertainty and massive cost of importing oil and gas from the north-western Indian Ocean (Persian Gulf), and give it short, secure sea-lines of communication with North America. This becomes increasingly important as Japan decides whether it can, politically, return to nuclear power generation or not.

Inherent in all this is the reality that US reliance on Middle Eastern energy is declining, and declining rapidly.

In other words, fear and uncertainty over the security of Middle Eastern sea lanes and choke points should be expected to be a driver in future energy procurement decisions and trade, pushing energy companies to invest in the recovery of oil and gas from less politically hostile regions. This could well spur the US — particularly after this term of the Barack Obama Administration — to redouble its efforts at recovering energy from its newly-confirmed oil and gas reserves. Egypt itself could also well turn its back on the Red Sea to some extent (although it will always be important to Cairo because of Suez Canal revenues), if Ethiopia can reassure it on the question of Blue Nile water flow, and if the offshore Mediterranean gas fields can provide a major energy income from European clients.

Even within Europe, the new availability of energy resources from the massive shale deposits, as well as the new Eastern Mediterranean gas fields and the growing network of supplies emerging from Russia and the Caspian Sea Basin, make the Middle East less critical as an energy resource. Clearly, the Red Sea/Suez retains its importance as a trade sea route, but even that, to an extent, is to be supplemented, if not challenged, over the coming decades by internal overland connections within the Eurasian landmass: the new Silk Route.

Has Arabia’s brief period in the geopolitical sun come, then, to its apogee?

All of this, then, could cause the PRC and India to become Ethiopia’s (and South Sudan’s) most interested clients for energy, just as they have become more important clients for energy from Iran, the Persian Gulf states, Sudan, and West Africa.

It is unsurprising that the present Turkish Government has begun to exert its renewed interest in the region, particularly by supporting Sudanese Pres. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir and attempting to court the Muslim Brothers in Egypt. Turkey has reasserted its claim to have an historical interest in the control of the Red Sea, based primarily on its earlier Ottoman dominance of what is now Saudi Arabia. While this Turkish claim or posturing may appear to be unsustainable to regional states, or outside observers, today, it is nonetheless a factor in Turkish neo-Ottomanism, and is also linked to Turkey’s grand strategic sense of rivalry with Iran (which also seeks to assert an influence on the Red Sea and Horn of Africa).

Where does all of this leave Ethiopia, Eritrea, and the Horn of Africa?

Significantly, one possibility could be — with the personality-driven autocracies of Meles and Isayas drifting astern — that Ethiopia and Eritrea resume their historical relationship, but in such a way that the various elements of the “old empire” are given their due attention. This could see a gradually coalescing confederation which would include Eritrea (historically, the Bar Negus: Kingdom of the North), and Ethiopia, with greater prominence given to the aspirations of its great regions, such as Oromo- land, and the Somali regions, Tigré, the Amhara Plateau, and so on.

Nostalgia for the golden days of Emperor Haile Selassie I means that there are elements of the historical interlinking cultures of the Ge’ez language based peoples which still have a commonality.

 

By. Gregory R. Copley

Original Title :-  Global Energy Could Change as the Autocracies of Ethiopia and Eritrea Fall Apart

Islamic Revolt 2012 “Social Insurgency vs Sectarianism” ? the Case of Ethiopia

Islam in Ethiopia is known since the time of the Prophet.
The first Hijrah was in Ethiopia at the order of the Mohammed the founder of Islam.

Since the Arab Spring of 2011 Ethiopia tested its share reaching climax in 2012.
This video shows the different positions of the Ethiopian Islamist and the different manifestations those anti and pro as the situation start being exploited by the regime which is leading to more exacerbation and more clamp down with no solution.

The revolt would lead to general uprising and regime change, if it is not kidnapped by sectarians and only if the other sector of the society joins the insurgency.

Egyptian Newly elected Morsy opened the Old books of Coptic Church to save the Nile water from damming (Muse Tegegne, Prof.)

The newly elected president Mohamed Morsy is opening history books to solve the Nile issue with the millennium old relation of  Egyptian Coptic Church with Ethiopia.  For over 1500 the Ethiopian Orthodox Church received its patriarch form Egypt . The Ethiopian church in return grants the freedom of worship in Egypt by using Nile as deterrence  menacing to deviates the Nile water if freedom of Christian cult was not respected. There was a time the Ethiopian kings menaced the Egyptian Muslim leaders to detour the Nile water at its source if the persecution of the Muslims in the Nile country continuous.

There is other main diveregance between the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and the Egyptian Coptic church on Keys of the Der el Sultan Church in Jerusalem. The key is now in the hands of the Ethiopian monks at the monastery in the heart of Jerusalem. In the  1967  six day war  the key was given back by the Israeli army to the Ethiopians. Recently the Israeli court judged in favor  Egyptian church .  This conflict by the sisterly churches was used as an arm by the Israeli politician between Egypt and Ethiopia. The author was once represented the Ethiopian side of the story   at   the Israeli court in the end of 1970’s.

The newly elected head of the Coptic Church at the recent death of the Patriarch Pope Shenouda III informed the press on Thursday that the church is prepared to accompany newly elected President Mohamed Morsy on his tour of Ethiopia to discuss Nile water allocation if asked to do so.

President Mohamed Morsy will visit Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, as the head of Egypt’s delegation at the African Summit on 15 and 16 July.

Relations between Egypt and Ethiopia were strained when in May 2010; Ethiopia joined other upstream Nile countries in signing the Entebbe agreement, which outlined new allocations for Nile water. The agreement was rejected by Egypt and Sudan, who both stands by a 1959 and 1929 accorded the lion share of the Nile of the waters.

Despite Egypt’s and international  objections, in 2011 Ethiopia began work on the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, which Egypt claims may reduce its quota of Nile water and dries the Nile water eventually the only source of life giving water to Egypt.

Prior to his death, the Coptic Church’s leader Pope Shenouda III was working closely with members of the Ethiopian church to address this issue.

The deceased Pope Shenouda III was “keen on resolving this crisis during his meetings with religious figures in Ethiopia,” he said, adding that the church delegated several bishops to work on the issue.

The new “Death Dam” in construction in Ethiopian not only will salinate the Nile river but also deprive Egypt from the yearly floods that Egyptian farmers depended of over 12’000 years as the source of their civilization. The new  death dam two times bigger than its source Lake Tana will soon be the biggest manmade lake in Africa with that of Aswan. To fill this big in human dam  will take a minimum of 5 years during which Egyptian farmers will pay the dividend. Today countries like the US are dismantling dams to revive the traditional water flows after constructing over 1500 dams all over the country while African dictators of the Nile are damming the only source of frech water in the region, The Nile.

And the great Tana Lake in consequence will dry when all its water will sip down to the newly built  artificial dam after the construction of the Ethiopian Dictators megalomania dam.  Since Tana lake is placed at the alatitutde of 2200 meters and the the new Death Dam is down at 100 meters all waters will flow down to this in human barrage. According to the recent studies  such  pyramidal dams in the tropical areal will have  a lasting consquence on the disequilibrium earth’s magnetic filed disturbances. (See Video)

Ethiopia could recurs to other sources of Energy like Thermal which in the abundance in the highland plateau and Egypt in return  could be a partner in its realization to safe guard the Nile water by investing in this project.  ( Prof. Muse Tegegne)

 

Ethiopian Dictator U turn and decided to rest in Somalia while the northern clash with Eritrea continues in silence

The Ethiopian dictator made   u-turn and decided to prolong it stay in Somalia mongering war since the northern front with Eritrea seems is now no menace though a continues fire exchange is live  near Badme town from our reporter in the area .    And Somalia has been chaos since warlord’s toppled Dictator Mohamed Siad Barre in 1991. And since 1998 has been a continuation of the war between Eritrea and Ethiopia.

Big pretext given by the Melees Zenawie to keep its troops in Somalia – “until the Horn of Africa country ratifies a constitution and its military is able to fend off militant threats on its own. ”  Ethiopian forces captured the rebel stronghold of Baidoa in southern Somalia in February having seized Baladwayne from the militants and started evacuating when the conflict with Eritrea rekindled two weeks ago.

 

Melees  Zenawie the irredentist dictator join the scramble for Somalia by rolling hundreds of troops across its border in November by  opening  up a third front  against Shabab, the two  main underline    reasons are

– competition with Kenya for controlling the big portion of oil rich southern  Somalia,

–  and the fight with Eritrea since its ill-fated 2006-2009 incursion.– Ethiopia is to this day training and arming the different faction of Somali clans, while   Eritrea is armed and trained Alshabab.

Once again  Ethiopian dictator declared that his  troops would only be deployed for a brief period to fight Alshabab  militants.  Later is  also  affronting 11,000 strong African Union  (AMISOM) forces  and Kenyans  fighting to controlled the Azania corner oil rich  Juba land as a “buffer zone”. .

This new 180 degree turn of the  Ethiopian dictator  stopping his sudden evacuation was justified in the following propaganda :-

“It (Ethiopia) will remain (in Somalia) until the Transitional Government (of Somalia) has adequately organized itself to fend off any attack from hostile forces,”  “There is no current plan to evacuate from Somalia until such time that a proper Somali constitution is ratified by all parties to the conflict, and until the constituent assembly will ratify the constitution,”

The new million dollars of US aid recently granted may be forced him to stay since he got a new indirectly mandate.

Last June Somalia’s feuding leaders agreed to extend the mandate of a transitional government for a year rather than hold elections, a move sought by Uganda which has peacekeepers stationed in the anarchic state.

The mandate for Somalia’s latest administration was meant to expire in August 2011 but President Sheikh Sharif Ahmed, a former Islamist rebel leader, and speaker Sharif Hassan Sheikh Aden, who covets the top job, had been at loggerheads over what should happen then, and agreed to defer elections.

Alshabab seems strategically  have surrendered territory in Mogadishu and across central and southern Somalia in the past few months weekend by AMISON forces where the Eritrean support is no more reaching crippled with sanction of 2008 and December 2011

AU and Somali government troops seem to secure little aid corridor between Mogadishu and a former rebel stronghold close to the capital. By the end of the month, Somali and Kenyan forces had captured the rebel stronghold and strategic town of Afmadow; but never able to capture the capital of Alshabab Kismayu.

Seizing Afmadow was considered a crucial step in the Kenyan drive towards the southern port city of Kismayu, the hub of al Shabab operations, about 120 km (75 miles) away.

Alshabab in areas they have vacated they are launching grenade attacks and using suicide bombers. The rebel group has waged a bloody five-year campaign to topple Somalia’s Western-backed government and impose its harsh interpretation of Islamic law with the support of Eritrea.

It continues to hold swathes of central and southern Somalia with help of Eritrea only against 11’000 AMISON Forces with Kenya and Ethiopia included.

Ethiopia dictatorial ranks worst failed state at 17 place while beliques Eritrea ranked 23 place and the stateless Somalia scored 1st

The 2012 Failed state Index is  released the eighth edition of its annual Failed States Index (FSI), highlighting global political, economic and social pressures experienced by states.

The 2012 FSI ranks the Horn of Africa dominates that of  Somalia as number one for the fifth consecutive year, citing widespread lawlessness, ineffective government, terrorism, insurgency, crime, and well-publicized pirate attacks against foreign vessels, while Ethiopia stood at the 17 place  scoring 97.7  worst than Eritrea that  stood 23 with a score of 94.3. Kenya stood 16 with a score of 98.4.

Ethiopia lost three places from last year. It is the worst while dealing with its demography at the same time  India has more demographic trends scores 78 place with 78.1 points. So there is no reason why Ethiopia scored the worst in its ability to meet the challenges of Demographic Pressures only deference is democracy  and development. Ethiopia is the second most populous nation in Africa and has one of the highest birth rates in the world, it constantly struggles to feed itself with its dictatorial leaders letting the most fertile land to be grabbed by the Indian and Saudi speculators while over 70 % three meals a day . Ethiopia would be first if the score is only based on the country that starves  worst its population the last 50 years.  Last but not list Ethiopia’s worst   security apparatus that terrorize its own population and human right violations pushes here up on the index.

Meanwhile, Finland has remained in the best position, with its Scandinavian neighbors Sweden and Denmark rounding out the best three rankings. All three nations benefit from strong social and economic indicators, paired with excellent provision of public services and respect for human rights and the rule of law.

The FSI ranks 178 countries using 12 social, economic, and political indicators of pressure on the state, along with over 100 sub-indicators. These include such issues as Uneven Development, State Legitimacy, Group Grievance, and Human Rights. Each indicator is rated on a scale of 1-10, based on the analysis of millions of publicly available documents, other quantitative data, and assessments by analysts. A high score indicates high pressure on the state, and therefore a higher risk of instability.

Other notable changes this year include countries affected by the Arab Spring. Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, Syria and Tunisia all ranked significantly worse than the previous year. Libya’s decline was the most remarkable, with the country registering the worst year-on-year worsening in the history of the FSI as a result of civil war, a NATO-led campaign of airstrikes and the toppling of the Kaddafi regime. Similarly, Syria registered the fourth-greatest year-on-year worsening in the history of the FSI as the campaign of violence by the Assad government took hold.

 

Eritrean Capital is evacuated by the foreigners, while Ethiopian troops are abandoning the Somali towns in the south to defend the northern front…

Witnesses say that hundreds of gun-toting al-Shabab fighters have moved back into central Somali towns abandoned over the last week by Ethiopian troops. At the same time many foreigners are abandoning the Eritrean capital in fear of the eventual Ethiopian Attack to topple the main allay of Alshabab Isasias Afwerki from his strong hold.

 Many Witnesses say that hundreds of gun-toting Al-Shabab fighters have moved back into central Somali towns abandoned over the last week by Ethiopian troops as the same time from  Asmara many of the Diasporas is contacted by their families  at home that  the Europeans residents are packing and we are informed by our local reporter

Ali Muhyadin, a resident in the town of El-bur, said Tuesday that residents woke up on Sunday and found that Ethiopian troops had abandoned their bases, while in Asmara the allied of Alshabab the Europeans are precipitating to leave.

Residents said al-Shabab fighters then beheaded two men accused of collaborating with the Ethiopians and dumped their headless bodies in town.

Al-Shabab was reported to have returned to two other towns – Mahas and Wabho – after Ethiopian troops left.

The pretext is reported by the Ethiopian that their dictator has recently promised that Ethiopian forces would leave Somalia soon but the capital of Eritrea the westerns are following closely the conflict since mid may. Ethiopian forces still occupy the larger towns of Baidoa and Beledweyne in Somalia and Badme the border city between two belligerent brothers in arm- Zenawie & Afwerki. Even the former troop have occupied more territories inside Eritrea since the last accrochage . Soon the hidden conflict will come to light when the international media turns its attention, today it seems a forgotten conflict in front of Iraq  and Afghanistan.


 

 

Eritrea governed by the worst dictator scored the Top most censored country, the worst of the worst

In its Ten Most Censored Countries, the CPJ  puts Eritrea the worst of the worst , North Korea, Syria, and Iran .

Eritrea, a tiny African land of just over five million wedged between Ethiopia, Sudan and the Red Sea is the number one culprit.

Though few people can find the place, lest have heard of it, Eritrea had fought a long and bloody war against Ethiopia before breaking free.

It’s capital Asmara used to be a pleasant place with Italianate architecture and optimism. Today Eritrea is a forgotten land; there is no freedom of expression. Only state-sanctioned media is permitted and foreign journalists are banned.

In such places newspapers often resemble poorly printed pennysaver-type publications with ubiquitous pictures of the local dictator greeting farmers, schoolchildren or soldiers.

 

Let us read the CPJ’s rapport as that follows:-

10 Most Censored Countries

CPJ’s new analysis identifies Eritrea, North Korea, Syria, Iran as worst

Published May 2, 2012
NEW YORK
Shutting out international media and imposing dictatorial controls on domestic coverage, the Horn of Africa nation of Eritrea has emerged as the world’s most censored country, the Committee to Protect Journalists has found in its newly updated analysis of press restrictions around the globe. Following closely on CPJ’s 10 Most Censored Countries list are North Korea, Syria, and Iran—three nations where vast restrictions on information have enormous implications for geopolitical and nuclear stability.

No foreign reporters are granted access to Eritrea, and all domestic media are controlled by the government. Ministry of Information officials direct every detail of coverage: “Every time [a journalist] had to write a story, they arrange for interview subjects and tell you specific angles you have to write on,” an exiled Eritrean journalist told CPJ, speaking on condition of anonymity for fear of reprisal. “We usually wrote lots about the president so that he’s always in the limelight.” So when President Isaias Afewerki dropped out of public view for a time last month, his citizens and the international community were left with only rumors about his well-being.

North Korea, which topped CPJ’s previous list of most censored countries, published in 2006, remains an extraordinarily secretive place with nearly all domestic news content supplied by the official Korean Central News Agency. As North Korea moved down a notch, to second on this year’s list, some tiny cracks have emerged: The Associated Press this year opened a bureau in the capital, Pyongyang, and a Japanese editor is working with a handful of volunteers to document daily life in North Korea and smuggle out the recordings. But issues with vast worldwide implications—including North Korea’s long-standing bid to build nuclear weapons and its new political power structure—remain hidden beneath severe censorship.

Censorship has intensified significantly In Syria and Iran in response to political unrest. Syria moved from ninth on CPJ’s 2006 list to third in this analysis; Iran, unranked in 2006, shot up to number four on CPJ’s new list. By barring international media from entering and reporting freely and by attacking its own citizen journalists, Syria has sought to impose a news media blackout on a year-long military crackdown that has roiled the international community. Iran has mixed high-technology techniques such as Web blocking with brute-force tactics such as mass imprisonment of journalists to control the flow of information and obfuscate details of its own nuclear program.

A North Korean tank moves past local journalists during an April military parade in Pyongyang. (AP/Ng Han Guan)

A North Korean tank moves past local journalists during an April military parade in Pyongyang. (AP/Ng Han Guan)

“The censorship of the media existed far before the revolution, but it has increased since because [President Bashar] al-Assad wants to convey a particular picture to the outside world that the regime is fighting off terrorists who are causing the unrest,” Eiad Shurbaji, a Syrian journalist who fled the country in January for fear of his life, told CPJ.” Another tenet of Syria’s propaganda was that minorities would be at risk without the regime, he said. “Media censorship played a huge role in keeping Assad in power.”

CPJ’s 10 Most Censored Countries, released to mark World Press Freedom Day, May 3, also includes, in order: Equatorial Guinea, where all media is controlled, directly or indirectly, by President Teodoro Obiang; Uzbekistan, where there is no independent press and journalists contributing to foreign outlets are subject to harassment and prosecution; Burma, where a series of reforms have not extended to rigid censorship laws; Saudi Arabia, which, like other Middle Eastern countries, has tightened restrictions in response to political unrest; Cuba, where the Communist Party controls all domestic media; and Belarus, where the most recent of many crackdowns by Aleksandr Lukashenko has sent the remnants of independent media underground.

In making its selections, CPJ closely considered six other countries that are heavily censored: Azerbaijan, Ethiopia, China, Sudan, Turkmenistan, and Vietnam. By exporting censorship techniques, China plays a particularly harmful role worldwide.

Among the list of 10 most censored, Saudi Arabia is a new entry. Cuba dropped from seventh in 2006 to ninth this year as authorities recently released more than 20 imprisoned journalists and a vibrant (though persecuted) community of independent bloggers has emerged. Burma has moved from second on CPJ’s previous list to seventh on this analysis because it, too, released a number of imprisoned journalists and informally loosened, at least temporarily, restrictions on reporting for locals and foreigners alike.

Burma’s military-backed government allowed foreign journalists into the country to cover a visit by U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in December and a landmark by-election in April. “But between those two events, with limited exceptions, the government ignored visa requests from major international news organizations, making it impossible for them to visit the country unless they did so undercover as tourists. Also, visas to cover the April 1 election were valid for five days only, after which all officially approved foreign reporters had to leave en masse,” one Southeast Asia-based reporter for an international news outlet told CPJ. He spoke on condition of anonymity, in order not to jeopardize his ability to report from the country. As for local reporters in Burma, he said, “they are able to report on small domestic protests or rallies and photograph policemen without getting in trouble. They are also often posting articles directly to Facebook and other websites without clearing them with censors,” but they remain wary of the risks entailed in critical journalism.

The 10 most restricted countries employ a wide range of censorship techniques, from the sophisticated blocking of websites and satellite broadcasts by Iran to the oppressive regulatory systems of Saudi Arabia and Belarus; from the dominance of state media in North Korea and Cuba to the crude tactics of imprisonment and violence in Eritrea, Uzbekistan, and Syria.

A photographer is obstructed as people flee a Syrian Army attack in Idlib in March. (AP/Rodrigo Abd)

A photographer is obstructed as people flee a Syrian Army attack in Idlib in March. (AP/Rodrigo Abd)

One trait they have in common is some form of authoritarian rule. Their leaders are in power by dint of monarchy, family dynasty, coup d’état, rigged election, or some combination thereof. In Eritrea, President Afewerki was elected by the National Assembly in 1993, but has since managed to hold off elections and the implementation of a constitution, largely by imprisoning critics and obliterating the private press.

Indeed, disputed legitimacy of leadership is at the heart of censorship and media crackdowns in many places. Syria has long been a tightly controlled country, but last year, when regular demonstrations began to call for the ouster of Assad, foreign correspondents were restricted and locals who reported on the uprisings were arrested; the dangerous task of reporting on Assad’s brutal military response was left to courageous citizen journalists and foreign reporters who sneaked into the country. Iran became vastly more repressive after the disputed 2009 election returned President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to power. Tehran—which once withheld subsidies and issued short prison sentences to keep critical journalists quiet—now closes news outlets, expels foreign media, imprisons dozens on lengthy terms, and seizes property. Saudi authorities—growing wary as regional uprisings ousted leaders in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya—added further restrictions in 2011 to the country’s media law, imposed new regulations on Web publications, and banned at least three columnists who had written about the region’s political unrest.

Lagging economic development is another notable trend among heavily censored nations. Of the 10 most censored countries, all but two have per capita income around half, or well below half, of global per capita income, according to World Bank figures for 2010, the most recent available. The two exceptions are Saudi Arabia and Equatorial Guinea, where oil revenues lead to much higher per capita income than the global level. But both of those countries are beset by vast economic inequities between leaders and citizens.

To determine this list, CPJ staff judged all countries according to 15 benchmarks. They included blocking of websites; restrictions on electronic recording and dissemination; the absence of privately owned or independent media; restrictions on journalist movements; license requirements to conduct journalism; security service monitoring of journalists; jamming of foreign broadcasts; blocking of foreign correspondents. All of the countries on the list met at least 10 benchmarks.

For this list, CPJ considered only countries where restrictions are imposed directly by the state. In Somalia and vast sections of Mexico, journalists practice extensive self-censorship in the face of extralegal violence.


1. Eritrea

President Isaias Afewerki has held off elections and the implementation of a constitution since 1993. (AFP/Marco Longari)

President Isaias Afewerki has held off elections and the implementation of a constitution since 1993. (AFP/Marco Longari)

Leadership: President Isaias Afewerki, in power since 1993

How Censorship Works: Only state news media are allowed to operate in Eritrea, and they do so under the complete direction of Information Minister Ali Abdu. Journalists are conscripted into their work and enjoy no editorial freedom; they are handed instructionson how to cover events. Journalists suspected of sending information outside the country are thrown into prison without charge or trial and held for extended periods of time without access to family or a lawyer. The government expelled the last accredited foreign correspondent in 2007. All Internet service providers are required to connect to the World Wide Web through government-operated EriTel. While Eritrea’s journalists in exile run many websites, Internet access is affordable for only a handful of citizens, and mobile Internet isn’t available.

Lowlight: In 2011, Eritrea planned to introduce mobile Internet capability, which is popular throughout the developing world, where cellular towers are often built before Internet or land lines. But the government, fearful of the effect of the Arab Spring uprisings, abandoned the plan.

Click here for more on Eritrea.


2. North Korea

Leadership: Kim Jong Un, who took over when his father Kim Jong Il died in December 2011. His grandfather, Kim Il Sung, ruled North Korea from 1948 until his death in 1994.

How Censorship Works: Nearly all the content of North Korea’s 12 main newspapers, 20 periodicals, and broadcasters comes from the official Korean Central News Agency and focuses on the political leadership’s statements and supposed activities. Ruling elites have access to the World Wide Web, but the public is limited to a heavily monitored and censored network with no connections to the outside world. While The Associated Press opened a Pyongyang bureau in January 2012 staffed with North Koreans, the AP wasn’t granted its own Internet connection and the correspondents have no secure line of communication. A Japan-based media support group, Asiapress, has been giving North Korean volunteers journalism training and video cameras to record daily life in the North. Downloaded onto DVDs or memory sticks, the images are smuggled across the porous border with China and then sent to Japan for broader distribution. Only small numbers of foreign journalists are generally allowed limited access to the country each year, and they must be accompanied everywhere by minders.

Lowlight: KCNA’s official version of Kim Jong Il’s death said he died on December 19, 2011, of heart failure while traveling by train because of a “great mental and physical strain” during a “high-intensity field inspection.” Subsequent analysis of official pronouncements indicates that, wherever he was, Kim most likely died on December 17, and the news was delayed to allow officials to sort out problems of succession.

Click here for more on North Korea.


3. Syria

Leadership: President Bashar al-Assad, who took over upon his father’s death in 2000

How Censorship Works: Since demonstrators began calling for Assad’s ouster in March 2011, the regime has imposed a blackout on independent news coverage, barring foreign reporters from entering and reporting freely, and detaining and attacking local journalists who try to cover protests. Numerous journalists have gone missing or been detained without charge, and many said they were tortured in custody. International media have relied heavily on footage shot by citizen journalists in very dangerous conditions. At least nine journalists have been killed on duty since November 2011, six in circumstances in which government culpability is suspected. In its campaign to silence media coverage, the government disabled mobile phones, landlines, electricity, and the Internet. Authorities have routinely extracted passwords of social media sites from journalists through beatings and torture. The pro-government online group the Syrian Electronic Army has frequently hacked websites to post pro-regime material, and the government has been implicated in malware attacks targeted at those reporting on the crisis.

LowlightFerzat Jarban was the first journalist killed for his work in Syria since CPJ began documenting deaths two decades ago. A local videographer documenting protests and the government’s violent crackdown in his hometown of Al-Qusayr in Homs, his footage showed shocking images of dead women and children. Jarban was last seen being arrested before his body turned up bearing signs of mutilation, with one eye gouged out.

Click here for more on Syria.


4. Iran

President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has a wave and a smile for the media, even as his government imprisons journalists under horrific conditions. (AP/Vahid Salemi)

President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has a wave and a smile for the media, even as his government imprisons journalists under horrific conditions. (AP/Vahid Salemi)

Leadership: Ayatollah Ali Khamenei has been supreme leader since 1989. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad first won the presidency in 2005.

How Censorship Works: The government uses mass imprisonment of journalists as a means of silencing dissent and quashing critical news coverage. Since 2009, a once-robust reformist media has been battered by a government onslaught that has included the banning of publications and the mass arrests and imprisonments of journalists on antistate charges. Imprisoned journalists are subject to horrible conditions including solitary confinement, physical abuse, and torture; families of journalists are also intimidated and harassed in a bid to keep them silent. Iranian authorities maintain one of the world’s toughest Internet censorship regimes, blocking millions of websites, including news and social networking sites; using sophisticated techniques to detect interference with anti-censorship programs; and intimidating reporters via social networks. The regime also frequently jams satellite signals, particularly that of the BBC Persian-language service.

Lowlight: The regime has particularly targeted the BBC, especially since the 2009 disputed presidential elections, when the BBC Persian-language service extensively covered protesters describing abuse by security forces. Relatives and friends of BBC staff members have been arrested, questioned, or intimidated. Tehran has jammed BBC satellite signals, and the broadcaster reported a “sophisticated cyber-attack” on its email and Internet services that coincided with efforts to jam its satellite feeds into Iran.

Click here for more on Iran.


5. Equatorial Guinea

Leadership: Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, in power since a 1979 coup

How Censorship Works: Obiang’s government tightly controls all news and information over national airwaves. Technically, some outlets are privately owned, but none are independent, as Obiang and his associates exert direct or indirect control. State mediado not provide international news coverage unless Obiang or another official travels abroad. Censors enforce rigid rules to ensure the regime is portrayed positively; journalists who don’t comply risk prison under criminal statutes including defamation. Security agents closely shadow foreign journalists and restrict photography or filming that documents poverty. The government paid three Washington-based public relations firms a total of US$1.2 million between April and October 2010 to produce positive news about Equatorial Guinea, according to a report by the U.S. Department of Justice.

Lowlight: At the outbreak of the Arab Spring, the government banned state media from mentioning on air any of the North African or Middle Eastern countries involved. In March 2011, authorities detained and suspended a state radio announcer for a mere reference to a “leader of the Libyan revolution.”

Click here for more on Equatorial Guinea.


6. Uzbekistan

Leadership: President Islam Karimov, first elected in 1991

How Censorship Works: No independent media outlets are based in Uzbekistan. Independent journalists—mostly contributors to outlets outside the country—are subject to interrogation and prosecution under defamation charges or outdated statutes such as “insulting national traditions.” They and their families are harassed and smeared; some have seen sensitive personal information published by state media. MuhammadBekjanov and Yusuf Ruzimuradov of the opposition newspaper Erk have been imprisonedlonger than any other jailed journalists in the world, CPJ research shows. Internet access to independent news websites and online broadcasters is blocked, as are some keywords and topics on individual Web pages. Foreign journalists are denied visas and accreditation.

Lowlight: Karimov’s own nephew, the critical independent journalist Dzhamshid Karimov, vanished in 2006 after visiting his mother in the hospital. His friends eventually discovered that he was being held against his will in a psychiatric clinic, where he remained captive until November 2011.

Click here for more on Uzbekistan.


7. Burma

Newspapers on sale in Rangoon. Censorship is so extensive that papers cannot publish more than weekly. (AP/Khin Maung Win)

Newspapers on sale in Rangoon. Censorship is so extensive that papers cannot publish more than weekly. (AP/Khin Maung Win)

Leadership: President Thein Sein, a former general who assumed office in 2011 after a 2010 election that heavily favored military-backed candidates

How Censorship Works: Although Burma has transitioned from military to civilian government, released journalists among hundreds of political prisoners, and promised more reforms, its vast censorship structure remains in place. All privately run news publications in Burma are forced to publish weekly rather than daily due to stifling prepublication censorship requirements. The government’s Press Scrutiny and Registration Division (PSRD) censors news that could reflect poorly on the military or the government it backs, and imposes a complete blackout on reporting of the armed conflict with ethnic Kachin rebels in the remote north. The government dominates radio and television with a steady stream of propaganda. Laws bar the ownership of a computer without a license and ban the dissemination or posting of unauthorized materials over the Internet. Prison sentences have been used to punish reporters working for exile-run media groups. Regulations imposed in 2011 banned the use of flash drives and voice-over-Internet-protocol (VoIP) communication in Internet cafés. Local reporters with international agencies are subject to constant police surveillance; others only publish under pseudonyms to prevent possible reprisals. Foreign reporters are regularly denied journalist visas unless the government aims to showcase a state-sponsored event. Those discovered reporting on tourism visas are expelled.

Lowlight: In February 2012, the PSRD banned a commentary written by journalist Ludu Sein Win about a media conference where Ministry of Information officials discussed a proposed new media law that would allow more press freedom—including an end to prepublication censorship. Sein Win wrote tongue-in-cheek that those who attended the conference were “helping to make the rope to hang themselves.” The banned article was later published by the exile-run Irrawaddy.

Click here for more on Burma.


8. Saudi Arabia

Leadership: King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud, who succeeded his half-brother, King Fahd, in 2005

How Censorship Works: The Saudi kingdom’s media law is highly restrictive and vaguely worded, with penalties severe and arbitrary. Authorities have the right to appoint and fire senior editors in traditional media at will; after the emergence of a vibrant, unregulated online news sector, they introduced similar restrictions on the Internet. Regulations require government registration and approval of editors for any organization or individual conducting “electronic journalism” or “displaying audio and visual material” on websites, while criteria for approval are vaguely defined. No foreign or local journalists are granted access to the Eastern Province, where protesters have been calling for political reforms and greater rights for the Shiite minority since February 2011. Local news websites that have reported on the unrest have been shut down and their editors arrested. Foreign news about events outside Saudi Arabia is available, but international news outlets operating inside its borders limit their reporting in order to maintain accreditation.

Lowlights: Saudi authorities expelled Riyadh-based Reuters correspondent Ulf Laessingin March 2011, angered by his coverage of political unrest. Laessing wrote: “State security agents knocked at dawn at my hotel room after I had covered Shiite protests in the Eastern Province. A week later, the government withdrew my accreditation.”

Click here for more on Saudi Arabia.


9. Cuba

Leadership: President Raúl Castro, who took over from his brother, Fidel Castro, in 2008; the country has been a one-party communist state since Fidel Castro took power in a 1959 revolution

How Censorship Works: All authorized domestic news media are controlled by the Communist Party, which recognizes freedom of the press only “in accordance with the goals of the socialist society.” Internet service providers are obliged to block objectionable content. Independent journalists and bloggers all work on websites that are hosted overseas and updated through embassies or costly hotel connections. Although the last of the 29 independent journalists imprisoned in the 2003 Black Spring crackdown was released in April 2011, the government continues to persecute critical journalists with arbitrary arrests, short-term detentions, beatings, surveillance, and smear campaigns on state media and on the Internet. Government supporters sometimes gather outside the homes of critical journalists to intimidate them. Officials grant visas to foreign journalists selectively.

Lowlight: Prominent critical blogger Yoani Sánchez was refused a visa to leave the country in February for the 19th time, she said. Sánchez has been targeted in the past with smear campaigns, cyber-attacks on her blog, and assault.

Click here for more on Cuba.


10. Belarus

The government blocked access to social media sites to keep people from learning about this July 2011 protest--which was then<br /> broken up by police.. (AP/Dmitry Brushko)

The government blocked access to social media sites to keep people from learning about this July 2011 protest–which was then broken up by police.. (AP/Dmitry Brushko)

Leadership: President Aleksandr Lukashenko, in office since 1994

How Censorship Works: Lukashenko’s wide-ranging anti-press tactics have included politicized prosecution of journalists; imprisonments; travel bans against critical reporters; debilitating raids on independent newsrooms; wholesale confiscation of newspapers and seizure of reporting equipment; and failure to investigate the murdersof at least three journalists in the past 10 years. After the rigged election of 2010, hecracked down on what was left of the independent media, sending it underground. Working as a journalist without government-issued accreditation is prohibited; television is state-owned or state-controlled. In 2010, Lukashenko signed a law to censor the Internet, created an agency to implement the law, and placed his own son to head it. Shortly after it was created, the agency blacklisted independent and opposition websites. Public access to the Internet requires a government-issued ID, which allows the KGB to monitor users. At least one opposition website has been the target ofhacking attacks, including one in which a password obtained via malware was used to insert a false news story about an opposition politician.

Lowlight: Following the December 2010 presidential vote, Lukashenko imprisoned prominent independent journalists Irina Khalip and Natalya Radina on fabricated charges in retaliation for reporting on post-election protests. Khalip was later released from prison under heavy restrictions, while Radina was forced to flee Belarus to avoid a repeated incarceration.

Click here for more on Belarus.


The runners-up:

These heavily censored countries nearly made CPJ’s list.

  • Press freedom in Turkmenistan, which was among CPJ’s 10 Most Censored Countries in 2006, remains in dire condition. All media are government-controlled; editors are appointed by President Gurbanguly Berdymuhammedov; and access to independent news websites is blocked.
  • In China, some commercially-minded news media test boundaries while Internet users get around Web blocking. But authorities make extensive use of propaganda directives; impose travel and access bans; jam signals and censor international broadcasts; and intimidate critical journalists through job dismissals and imprisonment. Beijing is also a model for censorship regimes elsewhere and an exporter of censorship technology, including to several countries in CPJ’s top 10.
  • In Ethiopia, censorship has become far more restrictive in recent years. The government of Meles Zenawi appoints managers of broadcasters and state newspapers and licenses all media. Anti-terrorism legislation criminalizes any reporting that the Ethiopian government deems favorable to opposition movements designated as terrorist.
  • Government officials in Vietnam meet weekly with editors to give coverage instructions. Reporting on sensitive topics such as relations with China can result in arrest and imprisonment.
  • Authorities in Sudan frequently confiscate newspapers, which are the widespread form of media. This year, security forces have increasingly adopted the technique of confiscating newspaper editions wholesale to inflict financial losses on publishers.
  • In Azerbaijan, there are no foreign or independent broadcasters on the airwaves, and the few journalists who work on independent newspapers or websites are subject to intimidation tactics, including imprisonment on fabricated charges.

 

EDITOR’S NOTE: The Burma section of this report has been corrected to reflect that President Thein Sein was elected in 2010, not in 2011.

Ethiopianism Paradigm of Change and Liberation June 2012

Breaking News


June 30

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June 20

  • ThumbnailMother of 6 has risky dozens of implant surgeries – YouTube
  • Ethiopian News in Amharic : Tuesday, June 19 2012 – YouTube

June 19

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June 17

June 16

  • Ethiopian government outlaws VOIP, 15-year prison sentences possible
  • New international war crimes prosecutor sworn in  | ajc.com
  • New Stockholm-based Ambassador to Eritrea, news, StarAfrica.com
  • Ethiopian Forces Ditch Another Town in South-Central Somalia | Allsomalia war helaa talo hela
  • Ethiopian dictator’s Confusion over new communication legislation closed VOA
  • Behind Every Land Grab is a Water Grab
  • Water pacts re-examined amid Arab Spring – UPI.com

June 15

  • A Skype call in Ethiopia will now get you 15 years in prisonA Skype call in Ethiopia will now get you 15 years in prison | VentureBeat
  • Ethiopia clamps down on Skype and other internet use on Tor-BBC News –
  • The Ethiopian Dictator dupe the IMF during its mission to study the famine economy of Melese Zenawie 

June 14

June 13

  • The Non-War Intensifies in South and North Sudan
  • Foreign Aid in the Horn of Africa Faces Austerity Ax -Ben Barber:

June 12

June 11

June 10 

 

  • Federalism will not work in Somalia, unlike Ethiopia | Somaliland Press.com – Somali News in English
  • Welsh Secretary Cheryl Gillan praises ‘impressive’ RAF Sea King’s Wales floods airlift rescue caught on camera as Aberystwyth clean-up begins | Metro.co.uk

June 9

  • Ethiopia to Assess Impact of Dam with New Egypt – YouTube
  • Africa’s highest dam opens flood of debate | My Sinchew
  • An Ugly Conversation-Sharon Van Epps:
  • Ethiopia proposes $8 billion national budget – Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan
  • Israel offers cash to Africans to leave | News24
  • Italy: Living in an Earthquake Zone | European Journal – YouTube

June 8

  • On Location: Ethiopia Claims the Nile – Video Dailymotion
  • Huge dam in Ethiopia could destroy Kenyan lake – YouTube
  • AFP Photo / Menahem Kahana Choice for African migrants in Israel-Tent camp or deportation: — RT
  • 10 Reasons Why Au Pairs Differ From Nannies -GoNannies.com Blog |
  • Ethiopian dam spurs debate-AFP:
  • Ethiopian dam threatens Lake Turkana – Times LIVE
  • Water Conflict: Water Hostages in Egypt | Circle of Blue WaterNews
  • Jewish Heart for Africa… JPost – Jewish World – Jewish Features
  • For Mubarak, once Egypt’s strongman, a long fall from grace – CNN.com

June 7

  • Nic6053106Israeli paroxysm of racism and illegal immigration 
  • Israel to Deport Thousands of Ethiopians, South Sudanese-allAfrica.com

  • Planting Hope in Ethiopia | Care2 Causes
  • አንዋር ተቃዉሞ Ethiopian Muslims protest gains momentum as finishes fifth month – Awoliya Online

June 6

  • Health officials staying vigilant on combating West Nile virus threat – Bastrop, LA – Bastrop Daily Enterprise
  • Ethiopia: Investment Opportunities and Challenges Youtube

  • Dubliner, Bob Geldof organized Band Aid and Live Aid benefits for famine relief in Ethiopia.

    Ethiopia: Who is rocking this cradle? « CarsonPue

  • Venus, upper right, transits the sun as seen – Media (21 of 21) Eyes turn skyward as Venus travels across
  • Ethiopian News in Amharic : Monday, June 04, 2012 – YouTube

June 5

  • Genocide Watch calls for action against Ethiopia’s dictator | hornofafrica.de
  • African migrants targeted in Israeli arson attack | The Republic
  • Ethiopia’s Dictatorial Analysis of Somalia’s Political Situation: “A Web of Obstruction” | hornofafrica.de

June 4 

 June 3

June 2

June 1

  • Northern Mali groups look for an Islamic state – YouTube

Geo-strategy on growth and defense between G8 and NATO with Russia

According to CNN rescent report  President Barack Obama and fellow leaders at the Group of Eight meeting he hosted Saturday put job creation and economic growth at the top of their to-do list.
Merkel, second from right, talks with Medvedev, right, during a bilateral meeting on the sidelines of the G8 Summit.
“(They) must be our top priority. A stable growing European economy is in everybody’s best interest, including the United States’,” Obama told reporters after the two-day Camp David retreat in Maryland concluded.
At the same time, leaders stated “that the right measures are not the same for each of us.”
The G8 meeting was one of two high-stakes, back-to-back weekend summits scheduled over the weekend. On Sunday, NATO kicks off its two-day summit in Chicago, with a focus on the Afghanistan ,Syria and Iran.
Authorities announced Saturday that three people were charged with planning violent attacks during the Chicago summit.
The men, termed “self-proclaimed anarchists” by authorities, allegedly conspired to attack Obama’s Chicago campaign headquarters, the Chicago mayor’s home and police stations, authorities said. An Illinois judge set bail at $1.5 million for each of the three suspects arrested Wednesday.
The 10 members of the G8 Summit pose for a group portait at Camp David, Maryland. Left to right: European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso, Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev, Japanese PM Yoshihiko Noda, Canadian PM Stephen Harper, French President Francois Hollande, U.S. President Barack Obama, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, British PM David Cameron, Italian PM Mario Monti and European Council President Herman Van Rompuy.

Obama: G8 unified in approach to Iran

Summit protesters, including those affiliated with Occupy Chicago, held rallies Saturday.
G8 leaders — from the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, Italy, Canada and Russia — issued a declaration detailing their commitment to ensuring adequate energy and dealing with climate change; providing food security and nutrition in Africa; promoting democratic transitions in the Middle East; and supporting political transition in Syria. They reiterated “grave concern” over Iran’s nuclear program and the need to ensure an adequate oil supply.
But it was the global economy dominated that dominated the Camp David sessions.
The group dealt with an economically weakened, debt-laden Europe and faced the questions of whether massive deficit cuts trumpeted by German Chancellor Angela Merkel or economic stimulus will help the continent grow its way out of the current crisis. The language in their declaration Saturday appeared to focus as much on growth as austerity.
While discussing economic challenges and progress in the United States, Obama said the eurozone is more complicated.
“There are 17 countries in the eurozone that need to come to an agreement,” the president said, citing the crisis affecting Greece and other nations. “Europe has taken significant steps to manage the crisis.”
Hanging over the deliberations was the fate of Greece, which has been unable to form an elected government. Many analysts believe that Athens will be forced to exit the eurozone shortly, dropping the euro currency and possibly further rattling economic confidence.
“We welcome the ongoing discussion in Europe on how to generate growth, while maintaining a firm commitment to implement fiscal consolidation to be assessed on a structural basis,” the leaders said in a statement.
“We agree on the importance of a strong and cohesive eurozone for global stability and recovery, and we affirm our interest in Greece remaining in the eurozone while respecting its commitments. We all have an interest in the success of specific measures to strengthen the resilience of the eurozone and growth in Europe.”
 Obama and other members of the G* Summit review documents at Camp David.
The group also addressed the effects of sanctions on Iran over its nuclear ambitions. Iran says it wants nuclear power for peaceful purposes, but world powers fear that it is working to develop nuclear weaponry.
Tough sanctions on Iran are slated to take effect June 28, and a full embargo of Iranian oil by the European Union is set for July 1. There is concern about whether a sufficient supply of oil and oil products from other countries will make up for a lack of Iranian oil.
“There have been increasing disruptions in the supply of oil to the global market over the past several months, which pose a substantial risk to global economic growth. In response, major producers have increased their output while drawing prudently on excess capacity,” the G8 leaders said in a statement. They said they stood ready to call upon the International Energy Agency to take appropriate action to ensure that the market is fully and timely supplied.
Mike Froman, a White House national security adviser for international economic affairs, said the atmosphere at the summit was congenial and there was “very good interaction” among European leaders.
No one was defensive as the leaders shared their perspectives on the need to deal with debt and deficits and the importance of promoting economic growth. That included Merkel, a proponent of tough austerity measures, and newly elected French President Francois Hollande, who has different views on austerity and growth.
There was agreement among the leaders that North Korea faces further isolation if it continues its pursuit of a nuclear program.
Obama said the group believes that a “peaceful resolution and a political transition is preferable” in Syria and the group said it is “deeply concerned about violence and loss of life.”
The world leaders support U.N. and Arab League envoy Kofi Annan’s six-point peace plan to end the 14-month crisis in Syria, an initiative that calls for a cease-fire. While all of the nations back the Annan plan at the U.N. Security Council, there have been differences between Russia and China and other nations on how to tackle the crisis in Syria.
The United States and other countries have urged Syrian President Bashar al-Assad to step aside and have initiated tough sanctions against the government. Russia and China’s stated position is to call for an end to violence, but through diplomacy and negotiation, not official sanctions.
Earlier Saturday, Obama said leaders are hopeful about the dramatic political transition in Myanmar, also known as Burma.
“On a brighter note, we had the opportunity to discuss Burma, and all of us are hopeful that the political process and transition and transformation that is beginning to take place there takes root.”
A few hundred activists with ties to Ethiopia protested the invitation of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi to the G8 summit. They rallied in Thurmont, the town nearest Camp David. They decried Zenawi’s rule as authoritarian. An Ethiopian journalist Ababa Gelaw affronted and  intercepted  the speech of the African dictator.
On Sunday, the war in Afghanistan is expected to dominate discussions at the NATO summit. Afghan President Hamid Karzai and Pakistani President Asif Zardari are both expected to attend the meeting.
NATO leaders are currently on a timetable to withdraw all of the alliance’s combat troops from Afghanistan in 2014.
Senior administration officials tell CNN that NATO members have tentatively agreed on a security transition plan from NATO’s International Security Assistance Force to the Afghan National Security Forces before 2014. The plan, which also lays out a NATO training and advisory role after 2014, is expected to be formally adopted at the summit.
One of the key issues to be discussed in Chicago is who will pay to build up Afghan security forces during and after the NATO drawdown. Afghan national security forces should total around 350,000 by 2015, according to CNN National Security Analyst Peter Bergen. Karzai’s government can afford to cover only a fraction of the cost, which is expected to total roughly $4 billion annually after 2014, Bergen notes.
Non-U.S. ISAF countries are being asked to come up with $1.3 billion, the officials said.
Another issue is Islamabad’s continued blockade of much-needed NATO supplies over Pakistani roads to Afghanistan. Pakistan has kept its airspace open but closed its ground routes after the death of about two dozen Pakistani soldiers in November at the hands of NATO forces at a post on the Afghan-Pakistan border. NATO insists that the incident was an accident. Negotiations on the issue continue, the senior administration officials said.
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Adwa 116 anniversary the Victory against the Scramble of Africa, March 1st 1896 Prof. Muse Tegegne

The name Adwa divides and unifies Ethiopians today. 116 years ago the 1st of March 1896 it unified not only Ethiopia but the whole people of African descent and the rest of people under colonial subjugation. Today the name in Ethiopia signifies division dismemberment. It was in 1991 that the son of Adwa Melese Zenawie took over the reign of power in the palace of Menelik II. This is the same throne where the king of kings the lion of Adwa the pride of all people of African descent seat. Melese the worst dictator Ethiopia has ever seen is set to balkanize Ethiopia, a country Menelik fought and won the greatest battle against the Scramble for Africa. Melse is also Born in Adwa what a  sad historical coincidence .

The battle of Adwa of March first of March, 1896 a great victory and pride for Africans at home Diaspora. The victory assured that Ethiopia successfully resists European colonization.

Italy the late comer to the scramble for Africa in the late 19th century was allocated to Ethiopia but just needed to take control. The Italians and the rest of the European powers present at the Berlin Conference 1880’s wrongly assumed that Ethiopia was made up of rival tribes fighting one another and thought it would be a quick promenade for their 20,000 strong highly trained invasion forces, they never though these what they call “tribal back word savages “could be united raising a much larger patriotic people’s army to defend their country and even to win an all out war.

 

Map of the Battle of Adowa, between the forces of General Oreste Baratieri, Italian governor of Eritrea and Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia.

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The main cause of the Battle being the European colonial ambition it manifested through the deferent treaty the colonial powers used to cheat the Africans. This was highly manifested by Italo Ethiopian Treaty known as the Wechale Treaty. The colonial manipulation started when Menelik II came to the throne in 1889 the Italians thought that he would surrender sovereignty to them since they had been supplying him with ammunitions. They succeeded to manipulate the king on May 2, 1889, to make him sign the Treaty of Uccialli in the province of Wello, with which Menelik accorded for the Italians some land in Tigre to the already concession he has made by letting them to take Eritrea. In this famous once sided treaty, they tricked Menelik by having two different versions- one in Italian and other in Amharic. The secret of the Italian plan was manifested on article 17 which read in one in Amharic and other in Italian. Thus the Italian version read: –
The Emperor consents to use the Italian government for all the business he does with all the other Powers or Governments“.
The Amharic version reads:-
The Emperor has the option to communicate with the help of the Italian government for all matters that he wants with the kings of Europe.”

When Menelik realized that he had been cheated he immediately rejected the treaty and refused all further offers of gifts from the Italians. Turkey, Russia and France stood to the Ethiopian version of the story. Finally Menelik decided to confront the advancing Italian Army which has already occupied Tigre Provence without his contentment.

As a result in September of 1895, Menelik, King of Kings of Ethiopia mobilized the population of Ethiopia to arms. Over 100,000 Ethiopians gathered under his rank to liberate his occupy province by the Italian forces.

 

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“God, in his bounty, has struck down my enemies and enlarged my empire and preserved me to this day. I have reigned by the grace of God….Enemies have come who would ruin our country and change our religion. They have passed beyond the sea which God gave us as our frontier….These enemies have advanced, burrowing into the country like moles. With God’s help I will get rid of them.”

Menelik divided his Army under three leaders:-

  1. Emperor Menelik II, The King of Kings of Ethiopia
  2. Empress Taytu Betul, The Wife of Menlik II
  3. Negus Tekle Haymanot Tessemma ,
  4. Ras Welle Betul ;
  5. RasMengesha Atikem ;
  6. Ras Mengesha Yohannes ;
  7. Ras Alula Engida ;
  8. Ras Mikael of Wollo;
  9. Ras Makonnen Wolde Mikael;
  10. FitawrariGebeyyehu,

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On the night of 29 February and the early morning of 1 March three Italian brigades advanced separately towards Adwa over narrow mountain tracks, while a fourth remained camped. The Italiano Forces were led by:-

  1. General Oreste Baratieri ;
  2. Brgdaire Matteo Albertone,
  3. Giuseppe Arimondi,
  4. Giuseppe Ellena and
  5. Vittorio Dabormida.

 

These invading Italian forces were made up of 18,000 infantry and 56 artillery guns, and with many thousands of Eritrean militias were prepared to fight against Menelik II on the battle field.

At 6:00 on the 1st of March 1896 the Italian Gen. Albertone used the Eritrean askari peasant fighters to face their brother Ethiopian as is always the game to make the enemy to kill one another at a place called Kidane Meret. This was the hill where the Ethiopians had managed to set up their mountain out front. On the hill side though outnumbered by the Eritrean askaris, the Ethiopian fighters were able to hold their position for two hours which they broke the rank of the Italians and able to capture General Albertone’s. At such heroic fight the Italian and their remaining askaris dispersed leaving the wounded and the dead. Seeing the capture of the Albertone Gen Arimondi’s brigade joined the fight at the last minute and start punching the Ethiopians to liberate the captured Italians. The Ethiopians fought courageously and battled the colonizers three hours while Menelik himself joined the combat with his 25,000 strong Shewans people’s army and broke their back bones once for good. Brigadier Dabormida now made a fatal error as he retreated from Menelik’s push, he was cornered into a narrow hill where he was ransacked by Ras Mikael ‘s Oromo Army . They wiped him out, his body was never recovered. The last blow came at noon the next day when Negus Tekle Haymonot led his Gojjam forces break the back bone of the remaining Italian brigade. This happened when Negus was attacked by the last of the invading army which he destroyed and by one o’clock the battle was finished with victory to the African Army.

The battle was bloody over 8,000 Italians died and 1500 wounded many captured fighting hard to save the pride of European colonizers, but with no avail. Almost the same amount of Ethiopians perished in this decisive war of history in the African heartland after the war of the Zulu in South Africa and Mhadist victory against the Britons in Khartoum led by Mahadi.

“In Ethiopia, the military genius of Menelik II was in the best tradition of Piankhi, the great ruler of ancient Egypt and Nubia or ancient Ethiopia, who drove out the Italians in 1896 and maintained the liberties of that ancient free empire of Black men.” Huggins and Jackson analyzed the victory not only in terms of its significance to the postcolonial African world, but also in terms of its linkage to the tradition of ancient African glories and victories. An Introduction to African Civilizations, Huggins and Jackson write

 

 

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Mosquitoes “disappearing” in certain parts of tropics and “appearing” in an usual parts of the earth ?


The New era mosquitoes are manifesting in areas they are not used to be seen before. Like this summer in Thailand seems most of the mosquitoes disappear almost in Bangkok. Many attributes to the climate change .

 

We invite you to read the following articles to make your judgments and give us your experiences in your region .

 

Prof. Muse Tegegne


Mosquitoes ‘disappearing’ in some parts of Africa

By Matt McGrathScience reporter, BBC World Service

A mosquito feedingMosquitoes are now a rare sight in some parts of Africa

Malaria-carrying mosquitoes are disappearing in some parts of Africa, but scientists are unsure as to why.

Figures indicate controls such as anti-mosquito bed nets are having a significant impact on the incidence of malaria in some sub-Saharan countries.

But in Malaria Journal, researchers say mosquitoes are also disappearing from areas with few controls.

They are uncertain if mosquitoes are being eradicated or whether they will return with renewed vigour.

Data from countries such as Tanzania, Eritrea, Rwanda, Kenya and Zambia all indicate that the incidence of malaria is dropping fast.

Researchers believe this is due to effective implementation of control programmes, especially the deployment of bed nets treated with insecticide.

But a team of Danish and Tanzanian scientists say this is not the whole story. For more than 10 years they have been collecting and counting the number of mosquitoes caught in thousands of traps in Tanzania.

In 2004 they caught over 5,000 insects. In 2009 that had dropped to just 14.

More importantly, these collections took place in villages that weren’t using bed nets.

‘Chaotic rainfall’

One possibility for the reduction in numbers is climate change. Patterns of rainfall in these years were more chaotic in these regions of Tanzania and often fell outside the rainy season. The scientists say this may have disturbed the natural cycle of mosquito development.

Continue reading the main story

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It is most likely we will have an epidemic of malaria ”

Professor Dan Meyrowitsch,University of Copenhagen

But the lead author of the study, Professor Dan Meyrowitsch from the University of Copenhagen, says that he is not convinced that it is just the changing climate.

“It could be partly due to this chaotic rainfall, but personally I don’t think it can explain such a dramatic decline in mosquitoes, to the extent we can say that the malaria mosquitoes are almost eradicated in these communities.

“What we should consider is that there may be a disease among the mosquitoes, a fungi or a virus, or they’re may have been some environmental changes in the communities that have resulted in a drop in the number of mosquitoes”

The research team also found anecdotal evidence that their discovery was not an isolated case.

Prof Meyrowitsch added: “Other scientists are saying they can’t test their drugs because there are no children left with malaria.

“They observed this in communities with no large interventions against malaria or mosquitoes. It may be the same scenario that the specific mosquitoes that carry malaria are declining very fast now”

The researchers are unsure if mosquitoes will return to these regions. If they do, one particular cause for concern is the young people who have not been exposed to malaria over the past five or six years since the mosquitoes began to decline.

“If the mosquito population starts coming up again” says Professor Meyrowitsch “and my own assumption is that it will, it is most likely we will have an epidemic of malaria with a higher level of disease and mortality especially amongst these children who have not been exposed.”


Is the mosquito menace growing in the UK?
Virginia Brown


Mosquito sucking blood

Complaints of mosquito bites are on the rise in the UK. So should Britons brace themselves for a future mosquito menace?

Hovering perfectly at ear level with a lingering, bothersome whine, mosquitoes leave you with bites that lead to itchy, swollen welts.

In much of the world, affected by malaria, repelling them is a matter of life and death. In the UK they are a mere annoyance, interrupting summer holidays and barbecues.

Based on a survey of UK local authorities, reports of mosquito bites over the last 10 years are 2.5 times greater than in the 10 years up to 1996.

NHS Direct statistics show 9,061 calls in England complaining of bites and stings from early May this year to now – up nearly 15% from last summer. Not all bite complaints are due to mosquitoes – many can be attributed to bedbugs, midges and fleas.

But conditions in the UK, particularly in southeastern England, are increasingly hospitable to mosquitoes.

“The wet weather through May and June this year, along with a warm summer, has affected the population because mosquitoes like the standing breeding water,” says zoologist Michael Bonsall at Oxford University.

It’s difficult to track mosquito numbers accurately, but the UK authorities are trying to do so.

Mosquito snapshot

  • Culex pipiens is the most common mosquito in Britain
  • Only females bite humans, males feed off nectar
  • Bites often occur at dawn and dusk, when mosquitoes’ internal clocks tell them it’s feeding time
  • A quarter of British species do not bite humans but feed on animals and birds
  • Anopheles mosquitoes are the only known carriers of malaria
  • Red bumps and itching caused by bites is an allergic reaction to the mosquito’s saliva

The Health Protection Agency has organised the Mosquito Recording Scheme to look into where and how mosquitoes live and breed.

And the Chartered Institute of Environmental Health, with help from the HPA, has created Mosquito Watch, a voluntary reporting system geared towards collecting and analysing various specimens.

Not only do mosquitoes swarm over pools of standing water, including bowls left outside for pets, they appear under man-hole covers and even travel on London’s Tube network.

But while mosquitoes transmit deadly diseases in many parts of the world, they do not cause major harm in the UK.

They may spoil picnics in the park, but they are usually only a major problem when Britons travel to countries with malaria, dengue or other mosquito-borne diseases.

But once upon a time, malaria-carrying mosquitoes could be found in the salt marshes of southeastern England.

It is believed that malaria – literally “bad air” – dates back at least to Roman times in the UK, and outbreaks occurred as recently as the years just following World War I.

British doctor Ronald Ross, who discovered the malarial parasite living in the gastrointestinal tract of the Anopheles mosquito in the 19th Century, recruited teams to eliminate the larvae from stagnant pools and marshes.

Black-and-white striped Asian tiger mosquito bites a humanThe Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) has been spotted as close as Belgium

Malaria in England had effectively died out by the 1950s, mostly due to the draining of much of the marshland where mosquitoes bred.

But because of the growth of global travel, the number of imported cases of the disease in the UK has risen, with nearly 2,000 a year today.

In many cases, live mosquitoes have been found on aircraft, or travelling in luggage, having been transported from countries with malaria.

On rare occasions, people may even have contracted malaria in Europe and North America, dubbed “airport malaria”.

Five of the 30-plus species of mosquito found in the UK are not native. One variety is coming alarmingly close to the UK. The Asian tiger mosquito – Aedes albopictus – known for its white and black striped pattern has been spotted as close as Belgium.

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It is possible that Aedes albopictus [Asian tiger mosquito] could make its way to the UK”

Dr James LoganMedical entomologist

While the species does not carry malaria, it does transmit West Nile virus, Yellow fever and dengue.

“It is possible that Aedes albopictus could make its way to the UK,” says Dr James Logan, medical entomologist at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.

“Because they lay their drought-resistant eggs in transportable materials, like used tyres, there is a possibility that they can be transported to a country where they are not normally found.

“Some studies suggest that they could survive the UK winter, however, to date this species has not been found in the UK and the HPA are keeping a watchful eye on it.”

Bonsall agrees and adds that predictive models show how malaria-carrying species could even make their way to areas such as the North Kent marshes, Essex, Norfolk and Suffolk.

Mosquitoes are becoming immune to the insecticides used to treat them – via spray or bed nets, according to a recent study from Senegal. Between 2007 and 2010, insects with a resistance to a popular type of pesticide rose from 8% to 48%.

“This could be a big problem for future control,” says Dr Hilary Ranson, head of the vector group at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.

But according to Dr Logan, the health infrastructure and access to drugs in the UK means malaria is unlikely to take hold and cause major problems.

Unlike much of the world, the rise of the mosquito will be a nuisance in the UK rather than a serious threat.