Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD)IGAD is bragging to be the premier regional organization for achieving peace, prosperity and regional integration in the in the Horn of Africa . However, since its creation in 1996 the regions as gone major wars, military interventions, chronic conflict, starvation, regional division than integration. Since its creation has been manipulated by Meles Zenawie for his power and regional position to re-enforce his international and African Status and cover up his internal misconduct, ethnic cleansing and genocide.
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The seven member states of IGAD – Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda – cover an area of 5.2 Million sq. km and have a population of more than 200 Million. The average population growth rate of 2.6 % is one of the highest in the world and nearly half of the population is under 14 years of age.
This uncessful orgnaization took its root in 1983 and 1984, ( Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda) established an intergovernmental body for development and drought control in their region(IGADD). Eritrea became the seventh member after attaining independence in 1993 and suspended its membership from the organization April 21, 2007 after a rift with arch-foe Ethiopia at a meeting on Somalia this month threatened to divide the region. The reason given by the Eritrea:-
“It’s a temporary withdrawal. We feel that it’s not responsible to stay in that organisation when decisions are being made that are not legally or morally acceptable.” “The organisation is being manipulated by external forces, a number of repeated and irresponsible resolutions that undermine regional peace and security have been adopted in the guise of IGAD.”
The festering feud between Ethiopia and Eritrea, still bitter over their 1998-2000 border war and locked in what many see as a proxy war in Somalia.
|Member State||Area (Sq. Km)||Population (m)||Annual Population Growth(%)||GNI per capita (US$)|
The non realized objectives of IGAD were:-
- Promote joint development strategies and gradually harmonize macro-economic policies and programmes in the social, technological and scientific fields;
- Harmonize policies with regard to trade, customs, transport, communications, agriculture, and natural resources, and promote free movement of goods, services, and people within the region.
- Create an enabling environment for foreign, cross-border and domestic trade and investment;
- Achieve regional food security and encourage and assist efforts of Member States to collectively combat drought and other natural and man-made disatsters and their natural consequences;
- Initiate and promote programmes and projects to achieve regional food security and sustainable development of natural resources and environment protection, and encourage and assist efforts of Member States to collectively combat drought and other natural and man-made disasters and their consequences;
- Develop and improve a coordinated and complementary infrastructure, in the areas of transport, telecommunications and energy in the region;
- Promote peace and stability in the region and create mechanisms within the region for the prevention, management and resolution of inter-State and intra-State conflicts through dialogue;
- Mobilize resources for the implementation of emergency, short-term, medium-term and long-term programmes within the framework of regional cooperation;
- Promote and realize the objectives of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the African Economic Community;
- Facilitate, promote and strengthen cooperation in research development and application in science and technology
Communique of the 15th Extraordinary Session of the IGAD Assembly of Heads of State
Having taken note of the decisions and recommendations made by the 36th Extra-ordinary Session of the IGAD Council of Ministers as reflected in their Communiqué of 15th June 2010,
Having taken note of the report of the IGAD military expert’s mission to Mogadishu,
Considering the brief by the President of the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia and his appeal for urgent support and assistance to build the capacity of the TFG security forces,
Recalling the previous decisions of the IGAD Assembly of Heads of State and Government and the Council of Ministers on Somalia,
1. Notes with serious concern the deteriorating security situation in Somalia which poses serious threat to the peace, security and stability to the people and TFG of Somalia , the region and the international community ;
2. Reiterates the commitment and resolve of IGAD member states to give unswerving support and assistance to the TFG in its struggle against extremist and terrorist groups;
3. Underlines that the conflict in Somalia is not a conflict among the Somalis but between the people of Somalia and international terrorist groups;
4. Emphasizes the need for an urgent and robust response by international community led by the UN Security Council, to arrest the escalating danger facing Somalia and the sub-Region and reiterates its previous call to the UN to convert AMISOM into a UN peace keeping operation without delay;
5. Decides that a sustainable and reliable funding mechanism to be established and managed jointly by AMISOM, UNPOS, IGAD and the TFG for sustainment of the security forces upon development and deployment in Somalia;
6. Calls upon the African Union to relocate as soon as possible the civilian and police components of AMISOM to Mogadishu;
7. Regrets that the approved level of AMISOM troops has not been achieved thus far; and decides to deploy 2000 peacekeepers under AMISOM to Somalia immediately; and further calls upon the AU Commission to mobilize the necessary resources, logistics and equipment for the deployment;
8. Decides to work with all parties including AMISOM and UN Security Council to raise 20,000 troops to be deployed throughout the country. In this regard, Summit Embraces the need to mobilize Somali forces internally with possible intervention by neighboring countries including approaching the East African Community (EAC) and empower them with resources and equipment;
9. Endorses the recommendations of the military mission to Somalia as amended; Directs the Chiefs of Defense Staff of IGAD Member States to convene an urgent meeting and submit to the AU Commission an action plan to deploy 2000 peace keepers to Somalia to enable AMISOM to reach the authorized strength of 8100, and to review and implement, as appropriate, the recommendations made by the IGAD Military Mission to Somalia;
10. Directs the Chairperson of the Council of Ministers and IGAD Secretariat to make the necessary arrangement for the convening of the meeting of the IGAD chiefs of defense staff;
11. Decides to render support to the TFG Security institutions by providing inter alia training of troops and trainers , establishment of joint command and providing experts;
12. Directs IGAD Secretariat to strengthen its office in Mogadishu within 15 days and Calls upon AMISOM, UNPOS and IGAD to establish in Mogadishu an operational level coordination mechanism to strengthen and harmonize their support to the TFG in the areas of training, establishment of command and control structure;
13. Express appreciation to the partner Countries and organizations that are currently providing financial, material and technical assistance to the TFG andCalls upon them to enhance and sustain their support;
14. Welcomes the Agreement signed between the TFG and Ahlu Sunna Wal Jamma’a on 15 March 2010 in Addis Ababa and encourages the parties to realize the full implementation of the Agreement;
15. Encouraged by the commitment of the leadership of the TFG and urgesTransitional Federal Institutions (TFIs) to enhance their cohesion and unity in the face of the enormous challenges that Somalia is facing currently and in order to make progress in the accomplishment of the numerous tasks envisaged for the transitional period;
16. Calls upon the Chairperson of AUC to appoint an eminent person to lead the campaign for peace in Somalia. The eminent person shall be at the apex of a coordinating mechanism towards reconstitution and building the State of Somalia and to raise the profile of the country internationally;
17. Calls upon the international community to continue assisting refugees, internally displaced persons and victims of violence.
18. Affirms that the Djibouti process remains the sole basis for the Somalia peace and reconciliation and Rejects the proliferation of initiatives inimical to the swift resolution of the crisis in Somalia; Urges the TFG to continue the efforts it has been making to broaden its base while ensuring that the process is protected from the threat posed by extremists whose major effort includes the dismantling of the Djibouti process;
19. Calls upon AU Member states that have not contributed troops to render financial and material support to Somalia;
20. Having listened to a brief by H.E. Ismael Omar Guelleh, the President of the Republic of Djibouti on the mediation efforts by Qatar between Djibouti and Eritrea, decides to encourage the positive developments and also underscore the necessity for Eritrea to carry out all its obligations under the UN Security Council Resolution 1907 (2009).
21. Decides to remain seized of the matter.
Issued this 5th day of July, 2010, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
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© 2010 – 2013, Prof. Muse Tegegne. All rights reserved.